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R-core-libs-4.2.2-bp155.5.1 RPM for armv7hl

From OpenSuSE Ports Leap 15.5 for armv7hl

Name: R-core-libs Distribution: SUSE Linux Enterprise 15 SP5
Version: 4.2.2 Vendor: openSUSE
Release: bp155.5.1 Build date: Thu Nov 17 10:06:56 2022
Group: Unspecified Build host: armbuild02
Size: 4843283 Source RPM: R-base-4.2.2-bp155.5.1.src.rpm
Summary: R language libraries
This package contains the files from R/lib to make their usage
possible without installing a complete R. (I.e. VTK uses this)




GPL-2.0-only OR GPL-3.0-only


* Mon Oct 31 2022 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.2.2:
    * tools::Rdiff(useDiff = TRUE) checks for the presence of an
      external diff command and switches to useDiff = FALSE if none is
      found.  This allows R CMD Rdiff to always work.
    * On Windows, environment variable R_LIBCURL_SSL_REVOKE_BEST_EFFORT
      can be used to switch to only 'best-effort' SSL certificate
      revocation checks with the default "libcurl" download method.
      This reduces security, but may be needed for downloads to work
      with MITM proxies (PR#18379).
    * (macOS) The run-time check for libraries from XQuartz for X11 and
      Tcl/Tk no longer uses otool from the Apple Developer Tools
    * The LaTeX style for producing the PDF manuals, Rd.sty, now loads
      the standard amsmath, amsfonts and amssymb packages for greater
      coverage of math commands in the Rd \eqn and \deqn macros.  The
      \mathscr LaTeX command is also provided (via the mathrsfs
      package, if available, or the amsfonts bundle otherwise),
      fulfilling the wish of PR#18398.
    * (Windows) The default format of readClipboard() and
      writeClipboard() has been changed to 13 (CF_UNICODETEXT).
    * The PDF manuals (if built) can be compacted by the new target
      make compact-pdf (at the top level or in directory doc/manual).
    * There is now configure support for LLVM clang 15 on Linux, which
      defaults to position-independent (PIE) executables whereas
      gfortran does not.
    * Many small changes to ease compilation (and suppress warnings)
      with LLVM clang 15.
    * Rscript -e would fail if stdin were closed (Reported by Henrik
    * qt(*, log.p=TRUE) in outer tails no longer produces NaN in its
      final steps, thus fixing PR#18360.
    * tools::Rd2latex() now escapes hashes and ampersands when writing
      URLs, fixing LaTeX errors with such URLs in \tabular.
    * When isGeneric(f, fdef=*) is used with mismatching names, the
      warning is better understandable; reported (with fix) in PR#18370
      by Gabe Becker.
    * poly(x, n) now works again (and is now documented) when x is a
      "Date" or "POSIXct" object, or of another class while fulfilling
      mode(x) == "numeric".  This also enables poly(x, *, raw=TRUE) for
      such variables.  Reported by Michael Chirico to R-devel.
    * write.table(), write.csv() and write.csv2() restore their
      numerical precision (internal equivalent of digits = 15) after an
      interrupt (PR#18384).
    * One can now read also byte FF from a clipboard connection
    * source("") and source(character()) now give more helpful error
    * R CMD check --as-cran set _R_CHECK_TIMINGS_ too late to have the
      intended effect.
    * as.POSIXlt(x) now also works with very large dates x, fixing
      PR#18401 reported by Hannes M"uhleisen.
    * Files can now be extracted even from very large zip archives
      (PR#18390, thanks to Martin Jakt).
    * Non-finite objects of class "POSIXlt" are now correctly coerced
      to classes "Date" and "POSIXct"; following up on the extension to
      format() them correctly.
    * Added methods for is.finite(), is.infinite() and is.nan() for
      "POSIXlt" date-time objects.
* Thu Jun 23 2022 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.2.1:
    * New function utils::findCRANmirror() to find out if a CRAN mirror
      has been selected, otherwise fallback to the main site.  This
      behaves in the same way as tools::CRAN_package_db() and is
      intended for packages wishing to access CRAN for purposes other
      than installing packages.
      The need for this was shown by a day when the main CRAN website
      was offline and a dozen or so packages which had its URL
      hardcoded failed their checks.
    * The libraries searched for by --with-blas (without a value) now
      include BLIS (after OpenBLAS but before ATLAS).  And on macOS,
      the Accelerate framework (after ATLAS).  (This is patterned after
      the AX_BLAS macro from the Autoconf Archive.)
    * The included LAPACK sources have been updated to 3.10.1.
    * The (full path to) the command tidy to be used for HTML
      validation can be set by environment variable R_TIDYCMD.
    * Setting environment variable _R_CHECK_RD_VALIDATE_RD2HTML_ to a
      false value will override R CMD check --as-cran and turn off HTML
      validation.  This provides a way to circumvent a problematic
      The 2006 version that ships with macOS is always skipped.
    * The undocumented legacy declarations of Sint, Sfloat, SINT_MAX
      and SINT_MIN in header R.h are deprecated.
    * fisher.test(d) no longer segfaults for "large" d; fixing PR#18336
      by preventing/detecting an integer overflow reliably.
    * tar(., files=*) now produces correctly the warning about invalid
      uid or gid of files, fixing PR#18344, reported by Martin Morgan.
    * tk_choose.files() with multi = FALSE misbehaved on paths
      containing spaces (PR#18334) (regression introduced in R 4.0.0).
    * sort(x, partial = ind, *) now works correctly notably for the
      non-default na.last = FALSE or TRUE, fixing PR#18335 reported by
      James Edwards.
    * Environment variable _R_CHECK_XREFS_REPOSITORIES_ is only used
      for checking .Rd cross-references in R CMD check (as documented)
      and not for other uses looking for a CRAN mirror.
    * The search for a CRAN mirror when checking packages now uses
      getOption("repos") if that specifies a CRAN mirror, even when it
      does not also specify all three Bioconductor repositories (as was
      previously required).
    * The HTML code generated by tools::Rd2HTML() has been improved to
      pass tidy 5.8.0.
* Fri Apr 22 2022 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.2.0:
    * The formula method of aggregate() now matches the generic in
      naming its first argument x (resolving PR#18299 by Thomas
      This means that calling aggregate() with a formula as a named
      first argument requires name formula in earlier versions of R and
      name x now, so portable code should not name the argument (code
      in many packages did).
    * Calling && or || with either argument of length greater than one
      now gives a warning (which it is intended will become an error).
    * Calling if() or while() with a condition of length greater than
      one gives an error rather than a warning.  Consequently,
      environment variable _R_CHECK_LENGTH_1_CONDITION_ no longer has
      any effect.
    * Windows users should consult the WINDOWS section below for some
      profound changes including
    * Support for 32-bit builds has been dropped.
    * UTF-8 locales are used where available.
    * The default locations for the R installation and personal
      library folder have been changed.
      Thanks to Tomas Kalibera for months of work on the Windows port
      for this release.
    * matrix(x, n, m) now warns in more cases where length(x) differs
      from n * m, as suggested by Abby Spurdle and Wolfgang Huber in
      Feb 2021 on the R-devel mailing list.
      This warning can be turned into an error by setting environment
      variable _R_CHECK_MATRIX_DATA_ to TRUE: R CMD check --as-cran
      does so unless it is already set.
    * Function file_test() in package utils gains tests for symlinks,
      readability and writability.
    * capabilities("libxml") is now false.
      The description of capabilities("http/ftp") now reflects that it
      refers to the default method, no longer the internal one.
    * simplify2array() gains an except argument for controlling the
      exceptions used by sapply().
    * Environment variables R_LIBS_USER and R_LIBS_SITE are both now
      set to the R system default if unset or empty, and can be set to
      NULL to indicate an empty list of user or site library
    * The warning for axis()(-like) calls in cases of relatively small
      ranges (typically in log-scale situations) is slightly improved
      _and_ suppressed from explicit calls to .axisPars() as has always
      been the intention.
    * The contrasts setter function `contrasts<-` gains an explicit
      default how.many = NULL rather than just using missing(how.many).
    * grid.pretty() gains a new optional argument n = 5.
    * There is a new function .pretty() with option bounds as a
      technical-utility version of pretty().  It and pretty() gain a
      new argument f.min with a better than back-compatible default.
    * Function grDevices::axisTicks() and related functions such as
      graphics::axis() work better, notably for the log scale; partly
      because of the pretty() improvements, but also because care is
      taken e.g., when ylim is finite but diff(ylim) is infinite.
    * nclass.FD() gains a digits option.
    * The R Mathlib internal C function bd0() (called indirectly from a
      dozen probability density and distribution functions such as
      dpois(), dbinom(), dgamma(), pgamma() _etc_) has been
      complemented by a more sophisticated and (mostly) more accurate C
      function ebd0(), currently called only by internal dpois_raw()
      improving accuracy for R level dpois() and potentially others
      calling it such as dnbinom(), dgamma() or pgamma().  (Thanks to
      Morten Welinder's PR#15628.)
    * write.ftable() gains sep = " " argument as suggested by Thomas
    * The names of the locale categories supported by R's
      Sys.getlocale() and Sys.setlocale() are now provided by variable
      .LC.categories in the base namespace.
    * The Date and POSIXt methods for hist() and the histogram method
      for plot() now also use the new default col = "lightgray" in
      consistency with the corresponding change to hist()'s default for
      R 4.0.0.
    * hist.default() gains new fuzz argument, and the histogram plot
      method no longer uses fractional axis ticks when displaying
      counts ("Frequency").
    * mapply() and hence Map() now also obey the "max-or-0-if-any"
      recycling rule, such that, e.g., Map(`+`, 1:3, 1[0]) is valid
    * as.character(<obj>) for "hexmode" or "octmode" objects now
      fulfils the important basic rule as.character(x)[j] ===
    * The set utility functions, notably intersect() have been tweaked
      to be more consistent and symmetric in their two set arguments,
      also preserving a common mode.
    * substr(ch, start,end) <- new now e.g., preserves names(ch); ditto
      for substring(), thanks to a patch from Brodie Gaslam.
    * plot(<lm>) gains a extend.ylim.f argument, in partial response to
      PR#15285; further PR#17784 is fixed thanks to several
      contributors and a patch by Elin Waring.  The Cook's dist
      contours get customizable via cook.col and cook.lty with a
      different default color and their legend is nicer by default and
      customizable via cook.legendChanges.
    * Attempting to subset an object that is not subsettable now
      signals an error of class notSubsettableError. The
      non-subsettable object is contained in the object field of the
      error condition.
    * Subscript-out-of-bounds errors are now signaled as errors of
      class subscriptOutOfBoundsError.
    * Stack-overflow errors are now signaled as errors inheriting from
      class stackOverflowError. See ?stackOverflowError for more
    * New partly experimental Sys.setLanguage() utility, solving the
      main problem of PR#18055.
    * gettext() and gettextf() get a new option trim = TRUE which when
      set to false allows translations for strings such as "Execution
      halted\n" typical for C code.
    * An experimental implementation of hash tables is now available.
      See ?hashtab for more details.
    * identical() gains a argument for requesting that
      external pointer objects be compared as reference objects.
    * reorder() gets an argument decreasing which it passes to sort()
      for level creation; based on the wish and patch by Thomas Soeiro
      in PR#18243.
    * as.vector() gains a data.frame method which returns a simple
      named list, also clearing a long standing 'FIXME' to enable
      as.vector(<data.frame>, mode="list").  This breaks code relying
      on as.vector(<data.frame>) to return the unchanged data frame.
    * legend() is now vectorized for arguments cex, x.intersp, and
      text.width.  The latter can now also be specified as a vector
      (one element for each column of the legend) or as NA for
      computing a proper column wise maximum value of strwidth(legend).
      The argument y.intersp can be specified as a vector with one
      entry for each row of the legend.
      legend() also gains new arguments title.cex and title.font.
      Thanks to Swetlana Herbrandt.
    * Deparsing no longer remaps attribute names dim, dimnames, levels,
      names and tsp to historical S-compatible names (which structure()
      maps back).
    * sample() and have additional sanity checks on their
      size and n arguments.
      all.equal.numeric() gains a sanity check on its tolerance
      argument - calling all.equal(a, b, c) for three numeric vectors
      is a surprisingly common error.
      mean(na.rm =), rank(na.last =), barplot(legend.text =),
      boxplot(), contour(drawlabels =), polygon(border =) and
      methods::is(class2 =) have more robust sanity checks on their
      R CMD Rd2pdf (used by R CMD check) has a more robust sanity check
      on the format of \alias{} commands.
    * psigamma(x, deriv) for negative x now also works for deriv = 4
      and 5; their underlying C level dpsifn() is documented in
      'Writing R Extensions'.
    * The HTML help system now uses HTML5 (wish of PR#18149).
    * ks.test() now provides exact p-values also with ties and MC
      p-values in the two-sample (Smirnov) case.  By Torsten Hothorn.
    * ks.test() gains a formula interface, with y ~ 1 for the
      one-sample (Kolmogorov) test and y ~ group for the two-sample
      (Smirnov) test.  Contributed by Torsten Hothorn.
    * The return value from ks.test() now has class c("ks.test",
      "htest") - packages using try() need to take care to use
      inherits() and not == on the class.
    * New functions psmirnov(), qsmirnov() and rsmirnov() in package
      stats implementing the asymptotic and exact distributions of the
      two-sample Smirnov statistic.
    * iconv() now allows sub = "c99" to use C99-style escapes for UTF-8
      inputs which cannot be converted to encoding to.
    * In a forward pipe |> expression it is now possible to use a named
      argument with the placeholder _ in the rhs call to specify where
      the lhs is to be inserted.  The placeholder can only appear once
      on the rhs.
    * The included LAPACK sources have been updated to version 3.10.0,
      except for the four Fortran 77 routines which 3.10.0 has
      re-implemented in Fortran 90 (where the older versions have been
      retained as the R build process does not support Fortran 90).
    * path.expand() and most other uses of tilde expansion now warn if
      a path would be too long if expanded.  (An exception is
      file.exists(), which silently returns false.)
    * trunc(<Date>, *) now supports units = "months" or "years" for
      consistency with the POSIXt method, thanks to Dirk Eddelbuettel's
      proposal in PR#18099.
    * list2DF() now checks that its arguments are of the same length,
      rather than use recycling.
    * The HTML help system has several new features: LaTeX-like math
      can be typeset using either KaTeX or MathJax, usage and example
      code is highlighted using Prism, and for dynamic help the output
      of examples and demos can be shown within the browser if the
      knitr package is installed. These features can be disabled by
      setting the environment variable _R_HELP_ENABLE_ENHANCED_HTML_ to
      a false value.
    * The graphics engine version, R_GE_version, has been bumped to 15
      and so packages that provide graphics devices should be
    * The grid package now allows the user to specify a "vector" of
      pattern fills.  The fill argument to gpar() accepts a list of
      gradients and/or patterns and the functions linearGradient(),
      radialGradient(), and pattern() have a new group argument.
      Points grobs (data symbols) can now also have a pattern fill.
      The grobCoords() function now returns a more informative and
      complex result.
    * The grid package has new functions for drawing isolated groups:, grid.define(), and grid.use().  These functions add
      compositing operators and affine transformations to R's graphics
      The grid package also has new functions for stroking and filling
      paths: grid.stroke(), grid.fill(), and grid.fillStroke().
      A new function as.path() allows the user to specify the fill rule
      for a path that is to be used for clipping, stroking, or filling;
      available options are "winding" and "evenodd".  A new function
      as.mask() allows the user to specify the type of a mask;
      available options are "alpha" and "luminance".
      These new features are only supported so far (at most) on the
      Cairo-based graphics devices and on the pdf() device.
    * dev.capabilities() reports on device support for the new
    * par() now warns about unnamed non-character arguments to prevent
      misuse such as {usr <- par("usr"); par(usr)}.
    * Facilities for accessing ftp:// sites are no longer tested
      (except _pro tem_ for curlGetHeaders()) as modern browsers have
      removed support.
    * R can now be built with DEFS = -DSTRICT_R_HEADERS .
    * R CMD INSTALL no longer tangles vignettes. This completes an R
      CMD build change in R 3.0.0 and affects packages built before R
      3.0.2. Such packages should be re-made with R CMD build to have
      the tangled R code of vignettes shipped with the tarball.
    * USE_FC_LEN_T will become the default: this uses the correct
      prototypes for Fortran BLAS/LAPACK routines called from C/C++,
      and requires adjustment of most such calls - see 'Writing R
      Extensions' SS6.6.2.  (This has been supported since R 3.6.2.)
    * Package installation speed for packages installed with
      keep.source has been improved. This resolve the issue reported by
      Ofek Shilon in PR#18236.
    * R CMD check can optionally report files/directories left behind
      in home, /tmp (even though TMPDIR is set) and other directories.
      See the "R Internals" manual for details.
    * R CMD check now reports byte-compilation errors during
      installation.  These are not usually fatal but may result in
      parts of the package not being byte-compiled.
    * _R_CHECK_DEPENDS_ONLY_ can be applied selectively to examples,
      tests and/or vignettes in R CMD check: see the "R Internals"
    * _R_CHECK_SRC_MINUS_W_IMPLICIT_ now defaults to true: recent
      versions of Apple clang on macOS have made implicit function
      declarations in C into a compilation error.
    * R CMD check --as-cran makes use of the environment variable
      AUTORECONF.  See the "R Internals" manual SS8 for further details.
    * R CMD check --use-valgrind also uses valgrind when re-building
      vignettes as some non-Sweave vignettes unhelpfully comment out
      all their code when R CMD check runs vignettes.
    * Errors in re-building vignettes (unless there are LaTeX errors)
      are reported by R CMD check as ERROR rather than WARNING when
      running vignettes has been skipped (as it frequently is in CRAN
      checks and by --as-cran).
    * R CMD Rd2pdf gains a --quiet option that is used by R CMD build
      when building the PDF package manual.
    * R CMD Rd2pdf now always runs LaTeX in batch mode, consistent with
      Texinfo >= 6.7. The --batch option is ignored.
    * R CMD build and R CMD check now include the Rd file name and line
      numbers in the error message of an \Sexpr evaluation failure.
    * For packages using the \doi Rd macro (now an install-time \Sexpr)
      but no other dynamic Rd content, R CMD build now produces a
      smaller tarball and is considerably faster - skipping temporary
      package installation.
    * The non-API header R_ext/R-ftp-http.h is no longer provided, as
      the entry points it covered are now all defunct.
    * A number of non-API declarations and macro definitions have been
      moved from the installed header Rinternals.h to the internal
      header Defn.h. Packages that only use entry points and
      definitions documented to be part of the API as specified in
      'Writing R Extensions' SS6 should not be affected.
    * The macro USE_RINTERNALS no longer has any effect when compiling
      package code.  Packages which also use R_NO_REMAP will need to
      ensure that the remapped names are used for calls to API
      functions that were formerly also made available as macros.
    * The deprecated legacy S-compatibility macros PROBLEM, MESSAGE,
      ERROR, WARN, WARNING, RECOVER, ... are no longer defined in
      R_exts/RS.h (included by R.h).  Replace these by calls to
      Rf_error and Rf_warning (defined in header R_ext/Error.h included
      by R.h).
      Header R_ext/RS.h no longer includes R_ext/Error.h.
    * Header R_ext/Constants.h (included by R.h) when included from C++
      now includes the C++ header cfloat rather than the C header
      float.h (now possible as C++11 is required).
    * The legacy S-compatibility macros DOUBLE_* in R_ext/Constants.h
      (included by R.h) are deprecated.
    * The deprecated S-compatibility macros SINGLE_* in
      R_ext/Constants.h (included by R.h) have been removed.
    * R_Calloc, R_Free and R_Realloc are preferred to their unprefixed
      forms and error messages now use the prefix. These forms were
      introduced in R 3.4.0 and are available even when
      STRICT_R_HEADERS is defined.
    * rmultinom has been documented in 'Writing R Extensions' SS6 so is
      now part of the R API.
    * Similarly, Rtanpi, called from R level tanpi() is now part of the
      R API.
    * The long-deprecated, undocumented and non-API entry point call_R
      is no longer declared in R_ext/RS.h (included by R.h).
    * The header S.h which has been unsupported since Jan 2016 has been
      removed.  Use R.h instead.
    * The (non-default and deprecated) method = "internal" for
      download.file() and url() no longer supports http:// nor ftp://
      URIs.  (It is used only for file:// URIs.)
      On Windows, download.file(method = "wininet") no longer supports
      ftp:// URIs.  (It is no longer the default method, which is
      "libcurl" and does.)
      On Windows, the deprecated method = "wininet" now gives a warning
      for http:// and https:// URIs for both download.file() and url().
      (It is no longer the default method.)
    * On Windows, the command-line option --max-mem-size and
      environment variable R_MAX_MEM_SIZE are defunct.  The memory
      allocation limit was important for 32-bit builds, but these are
      no longer supported.
    * default.stringsAsFactors() is now formally deprecated, where that
      was only mentioned on its regular help page, previously.  So it
      now gives a warning if called.
    * unix.time() is defunct now; it had been deprecated since R 3.4.0.
    * Setting digits = 0 in format(), print.default() (and hence
      typically print()) or options() is again invalid.  Its behaviour
      was platform-dependent, and it is unclear what "zero significant
      digits" should mean (PR#18098).
    * Messages from C code in the cairo section of package grDevices
      are now also offered for translation, thanks to Michael Chirico's
    * mean(x) with finite x now is finite also without "long.double"
    * R CMD Rd2pdf no longer leaves an empty build directory behind
      when it aborts due to an already existing output file.  (Thanks
      to Sebastian Meyer's PR#18141.)
    * density(x, weights = w, na.rm = TRUE) when anyNA(x) is true, now
      removes weights "in parallel" to x, fixing PR#18151, reported by
      Matthias Gondan.  Additionally, it gets a subdensity option.
    * Conversion of \Sexpr[]{<expR>} to LaTeX or HTML no longer
      produces long blocks of empty lines when <expR> itself contains
      several lines all producing empty output.  Thanks to a report and
      patch by Ivan Krylov posted to R-devel.
    * R CMD build no longer fails if a package vignette uses child
      documents and inst/doc exists.  (Thanks to Sebastian Meyer's
    * When an R documentation ('help' source) file man/foo.Rd in a
      package has \donttest{..} examples with a syntax error, it is now
      signalled as ERROR and with correct line numbers relating to the
    * -Ex.R file, thanks to Duncan Murdoch and Sebastian Meyer's
      reports and patch proposals in PR#17501.
    * Improved determination of the correct translation domain in
      non-base packages, addressing the combination of PR#18092 and
      PR#17998 (#c6) with reports and _augmented_ patch #2904 by
      Suharto Anggono.
      Note that "R-base" is no longer the default domain e.g., for
      top-level calls to gettext(); rather translation needs explicit
      domain = * specification in such cases.
    * identical( now works correctly with data
      frames with default row names (Thanks to Charlie Gao's PR#18179).
    * txtProgressBar() now enforces a non-zero width for argument char,
      without which no progress can be visible.
    * dimnames(table(d)) is more consistent in the case where d is a
      list with a single component, thanks to Thomas Soeiro's report to
      Further, table(d1, d2) now gives an error when d1 and d2 are data
      frames as suggested by Thomas in PR#18224.
    * Fix for drawing semi-transparent lines and fills on the native
      Windows graphics device (PR#18219 and PR#16694).  Thanks to Nick
      Ray for helpful diagnosis on Bugzilla.
    * The deparser now wraps sub-expressions such as if(A) ..  with
      parentheses when needed; thanks to Duncan Murdoch's PR#18232 and
      Lionel Henry's patches there.
    * remove.packages() no longer tries to uninstall Priority: base
      packages, thanks to a report and suggestions by Colin Fay in
    * win.metafile() now has xpinch and ypinch arguments so that the
      user can override Windows' (potentially wrong) guess at device
    * x[i] and x[[i]] for non-integer i should now behave in all cases
      as always documented: the index used is equivalent to
      as.integer(i) unless that would overflow where trunc(i) is used
      instead; thanks to Suharto Anggono's report and patch proposals
      in PR#17977.
    * asOneSidedFormula() now associates the resulting formula with the
      global environment rather than the evaluation environment created
      for the call.
    * <bibentry>$name now matches the field name case-insensitively,
      consistent with bibentry() creation and the replacement method.
    * cbind() failed to detect some length mismatches with a mixture of
      time-series and non-time-series inputs.
    * The default LaTeX style file Sweave.sty used by the RweaveLatex
      driver no longer loads the obsolete ae package; thanks to a
      report by Thomas Soeiro in PR#18271.  Furthermore, it now skips
      \usepackage[T1]{fontenc} for engines other than pdfTeX (if
      detected) or if the new [nofontenc] option is used.
    * smooth.spline() now stores its logical cv argument more safely,
      fixing a rare bug when printing, and also stores n.
    * smooth.spline(x,y,*) now computes the cv.crit statistic
      correctly, also when is.unsorted(x), fixing PR#18294.
    * The data.frame method of rbind() now warns when binding
      not-wholly-recycling vectors, by analogy to the default method
      (for matrices).
    * setAs() finds the correct class for name to when multiple
      packages define a class with that name. Thanks to Gabor Csardi
      for the report.
    * Fix for detaching a package when two classes of the same name are
      present in method signatures for the same generic. Thanks to
      Gabor Csardi for the report.
    * match.arg("", c("", "a", "B")) gives a better error message, in
      part from PR#17959, thanks to Elin Waring.
    * R CMD Sweave --clean no longer removes pre-existing files or
      subdirectories (PR#18242).
    * The quartz() device no longer splits polylines into subpaths.
      That has caused narrowly-spaced lines with many points to always
      look solid even when dashed line type was used due to dash phase
    * Deparsing constructs such as quote(1 + `!`(2) + 3) works again as
      before R 3.5.0, thanks to the report and patch in PR#18284 by
      Suharto Anggono.
    * as.list(f) for a factor f now keeps names(f), fixing PR#18309.
    * qbeta(.001, .9, .009) and analogous qf() calls now return a
      correct value instead of NaN or wrongly 1, all with a warning;
      thanks to the report by Ludger Goeminne in PR#18302.
    * plot.lm() failed to produce the plot of residuals vs.  factor
      levels (i.e., which=5 when leverages are constant) for models
      with character predictors (PR#17840).
    * interaction.plot(..., xtick = TRUE) misplaced the x-axis line
    * Not strictly fixing a bug, format()ing and print()ing of
      non-finite Date and POSIXt values NaN and +/-Inf no longer show
      as NA but the respective string, e.g., Inf, for consistency with
      numeric vector's behaviour, fulfilling the wish of PR#18308.
    * R CMD check no longer runs test scripts generated from
      corresponding .Rin files twice and now signals an ERROR if
      processing an .Rin script fails.
    * tools::Rd2txt() used for plain-text help pages now renders \hrefs
      (if tools::Rd2txt_options(showURLs = TRUE)) and \urls with
      percent-encoding and standards-compliant delimiting style (angle
      brackets and no URL: prefix).  \email is now rendered with a
      mailto: prefix.
* Fri Mar 11 2022 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.1.3:
    * The default version of Bioconductor has been changed to 3.14.
      (This is used by setRepositories and the menus in GUIs.)
    * R CMD check --as-cran has a workaround for a bug in versions of
      file up to at least 5.41 which mis-identify DBF files last
      changed in 2022 as executables.
    * The legacy S-compatibility macros SINGLE_* in R_ext/Constants.h
      (included by R.h) are deprecated and will be removed in R 4.2.0.
    * Initialization of self-starting nls() models with initialization
      functions following the pre-R-4.1.0 API (without the ...
      argument) works again for now, with a deprecation warning.
    * Fixed quoting of ~autodetect~ in Java setting defaults to avoid
      inadvertent user lookup due to leading ~, reported in PR#18231 by
      Harold Gutch.
    * substr(., start, stop) <- v now treats _negative_ stop values
      correctly.  Reported with a patch in PR#18228 by Brodie Gaslam.
    * Subscripting an array x without dimnames by a
      length(dim(x))-column character matrix gave "random" non-sense,
      now an error; reported in PR#18244 by Mikael Jagan.
    * ...names() now matches names(list(...)) closely, fixing PR#18247.
    * all.equal(*, scale = s) now works as intended when length(s) > 1,
      partly thanks to Michael Chirico's PR#18272.
    * print(x) for long vectors x now also works for named atomic
      vectors or lists and prints the correct number when reaching the
      getOption("max.print") limit; partly thanks to a report and
      proposal by Hugh Parsonage to the R-devel list.
    * all.equal(<selfStart>, *) no longer signals a deprecation
    * reformulate(*, response=r) gives a helpful error message now when
      length(r) > 1, thanks to Bill Dunlap's PR#18281.
    * Modifying globalCallingHandlers inside withCallingHandlers() now
      works or fails correctly, thanks to Henrik Bengtsson's PR#18257.
    * hist(<Date>, breaks = "days") and hist(<POSIXt>, breaks = "secs")
      no longer fail for inputs of length 1.
    * qbeta(.001, .9, .009) and similar cases now converge correctly
      thanks to Ben Bolker's report in PR#17746.
    * window(x, start, end) no longer wrongly signals "'start' cannot
      be after 'end'", fixing PR#17527 and PR#18291.
    * data() now checks that its (rarely used) list argument is a
      character vector - a couple of packages passed other types and
      gave incorrect results.
    * which() now checks its arr.ind argument is TRUE rather coercing
      to logical and taking the first element - which gave incorrect
      results in package code.
    * model.weights() and model.offset() more carefully extract their
      model components, thanks to Ben Bolker and Tim Taylor's R-devel
    * list.files(recursive = TRUE) now shows all broken symlinks
      (previously, some of them may have been omitted, PR#18296).
* Mon Nov 01 2021 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.1.2:
    * The workaround in headers R.h and Rmath.h (using namespace std;)
      for the Oracle Developer Studio compiler is no longer needed now
      C++11 is required so has been removed.  A couple more usages of
      log() (which should have been std::log()) with an int argument
      are reported on Solaris.
    * The undocumented limit of 4095 bytes on messages from the
      S-compatibility macros PROBLEM and MESSAGE is now documented and
      longer messages will be silently truncated rather than
      potentially causing segfaults.
    * If the R_NO_SEGV_HANDLER environment variable is non-empty, the
      signal handler for SEGV/ILL/BUS signals (which offers recovery
      user interface) is not set. This allows more reliable debugging
      of crashes that involve the console.
    * The legacy S-compatibility macros PROBLEM, MESSAGE, ERROR, WARN,
      WARNING, RECOVER, ... are deprecated and will be hidden in R
      4.2.0. R's native interface of Rf_error and Rf_warning has long
      been preferred.
    * .mapply(F, dots, .) no longer segfaults when dots is not a list
      and uses as always documented; reported by Andrew
      Simmons in PR#18164.
    * hist(<Date>, ...) and hist(<POSIXt>, ...)  no longer pass
      arguments for rect() (such as col and density) to axis().
      (Thanks to Sebastian Meyer's PR#18171.)
    * \Sexpr{ch} now preserves Encoding(ch). (Thanks to report and
      patch by Jeroen Ooms in PR#18152.)
    * Setting the RNG to "Marsaglia-Multicarry" e.g., by RNGkind(), now
      warns in more places, thanks to Andr'e Gillibert's report and
      patch in PR#18168.
    * gray(numeric(), alpha=1/2) no longer segfaults, fixing PR#18183,
      reported by Till Krenz.
    * Fixed dnbinom(x, size=<very_small>, .., log=TRUE) regression,
      reported by Martin Morgan.
    * as.Date.POSIXlt(x) now keeps names(x), thanks to Davis Vaughan's
      report and patch in PR#18188.
    * model.response() now strips an "AsIs" class typically, thanks to
      Duncan Murdoch's report and other discussants in PR#18190.
    * try() is considerably faster in case of an error and long call,
      as e.g., from some  Thanks to Alexander Kaever's
      suggestion posted to R-devel.
    * qqline(y = <object>) such as y=I(.), now works, see also
    * Non-integer mgp par() settings are now handled correctly in
      axis() and mtext(), thanks to Mikael Jagan and Duncan Murdoch's
      report and suggestion in PR#18194.
    * formatC(x) returns length zero character() now, rather than ""
      when x is of length zero, as documented, thanks to Davis
      Vaughan's post to R-devel.
    * removeSource(fn) now retains (other) attributes(fn).
* Mon Oct 25 2021 Detlef Steuer <>
  - repaired
    (rpmacros now go to rpmmacrodir)
  - minor clean-ups in spec file
* Tue Aug 10 2021 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.1.1:
    * require(pkg, quietly = TRUE) is quieter and in particular does
      not warn if the package is not found.
    * Use of ftp:// URIs should be regarded as deprecated, with
      on-going support confined to method = "libcurl" and not routinely
      tested.  (Nowadays no major browser supports them.)
    * The non-default method = "internal" is deprecated for http:// and
      ftp:// URIs for both download.file and url.
    * On Windows, method = "wininet" is deprecated for http://,
      https:// and ftp:// URIs for both download.file and url.  (A
      warning is only given for ftp://.)
      For ftp:// URIs the default method is now "libcurl" if available
      (which it is on CRAN builds).
      method = "wininet" remains the default for http:// and https://
      URIs but if libcurl is available, using method = "libcurl" is
    * make check now works also without a LaTeX installation.  (Thanks
      to Sebastian Meyer's PR#18103.)
    * make check-devel works again in an R build configured with
    - -without-recommended-packages.
    * qnbinom(p, size, mu) for large size/mu is correct now in a range
      of cases (PR#18095); similarly for the (size, prob)
      parametrization of the negative binomial.  Also qpois() and
      qbinom() are better and or faster for extreme cases.  The
      underlying C code has been modularized and is common to all four
      cases of discrete distributions.
    * gap.axis is now part of the axis() arguments which are passed
      from bxp(), and hence boxplot().  (Thanks to Martin Smith's
      report and suggestions in PR#18109.)
    * .First and .Last can again be set from the site profile.
    *, to, *) and seq.default(..) now work better in large
      range cases where from-to is infinite where the two boundaries
      are finite.
    * all.equal(x,y) now returns TRUE correctly also when several
      entries of abs(x) and abs(y) are close to .Machine$double.xmax,
      the largest finite numeric.
    * model.frame() now clears the object bit when removing the class
      attribute of a value via na.action (PR#18100).
    * charClass() now works with multi-character strings on Windows
      (PR#18104, fixed by Bill Dunlap).
    * encodeString() on Solaris now works again in Latin-1 encoding on
      characters represented differently in UTF-8.  Support for
      surrogate pairs on Solaris has been improved.
    * on Windows now works with non-ASCII path names
      representable in the current native encoding (PR#18132).
    * Embedded R on Windows can now find R home directory via the
      registry even when installed only for the current user
    * pretty(x) with finite x now returns finite values also in the
      case where the extreme x values are close in size to the maximal
      representable number .Machine$double.xmax.
      Also, it's been tweaked for very small ranges and when a boundary
      is close (or equal) to zero; e.g., pretty(c(0,1e-317)) no longer
      has negative numbers, currently still warning about a very small
      range, and pretty(2^-(1024 - 2^-1/(c(24,10)))) is more accurate.
    * The error message for not finding vignette files when weaving has
      correct file sizes now. (Thanks to Sebastian Meyer's PR#18154.)
    * dnbinom(20, <large>, 1) now correctly gives 0, and similar cases
      are more accurate with underflow precaution.  (Reported by Francisco Vera Alcivar in PR#18072.)
* Fri Jun 04 2021 Detlef Steuer <>
  - The line %{__install} -m 755 -d %{_infodir}
    no longer works in TW or Factory.
    But without that line it works everywhere. So this instruction
    was commented out of the spec file.
* Tue May 18 2021 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.1.0:
    * It is planned that the 4.1.x series will be the last to support
      32-bit Windows, with production of binary packages for that
      series continuing until early 2023.
    * Data set esoph in package datasets now provides the correct
      numbers of controls; previously it had the numbers of cases added
      to these.  (Reported by Alexander Fowler in PR#17964.)
    * is no longer one of the repositories known by
      default to setRepositories().  (Nowadays it only provides source
      packages and is often unavailable.)
    * Function package_dependencies() (in package tools) can now use
      different dependency types for direct and recursive dependencies.
    * The checking of the size of tarball in R CMD check --as-cran
      <pkg> may be tweaked via the new environment variable
      PR#17777 by Jan Gorecki.
    * Using c() to combine a factor with other factors now gives a
      factor, an ordered factor when combining ordered factors with
      identical levels.
    * apply() gains a simplify argument to allow disabling of
      simplification of results.
    * The format() method for class "ftable" gets a new option justify.
      (Suggested by Thomas Soeiro.)
    * New ...names() utility.  (Proposed by Neal Fultz in PR#17705.)
    * type.convert() now warns when its argument is not
      specified, as the help file always said it _should_.  In that
      case, the default is changed to TRUE in line with its change in
      read.table() (related to stringsAsFactor) in R 4.0.0.
    * When printing list arrays, classed objects are now shown _via_
      their format() value if this is a short enough character string,
      or by giving the first elements of their class vector and their
    * capabilities() gets new entry "Rprof" which is TRUE when R has
      been configured with the equivalent of --enable-R-profiling (as
      it is by default).  (Related to Michael Orlitzky's report
    * str(xS4) now also shows extraneous attributes of an S4 object
    * Rudimentary support for vi-style tags in rtags() and R CMD rtags
      has been added.  (Based on a patch from Neal Fultz in PR#17214.)
    * checkRdContents() is now exported from tools; it and also
      checkDocFiles() have a new option chkInternal allowing to check
      Rd files marked with keyword "internal" as well.  The latter can
      be activated for R CMD check via environment variable
    * New functions numToBits() and numToInts() extend the raw
      conversion utilities to (double precision) numeric.
    * Functions URLencode() and URLdecode() in package utils now work
      on vectors of URIs.  (Based on patch from Bob Rudis submitted
      with PR#17873.)
    * path.expand() can expand ~user on most Unix-alikes even when
      readline is not in use.  It tries harder to expand ~, for example
      should environment variable HOME be unset.
    * For HTML help (both dynamic and static), Rd file links to help
      pages in external packages are now treated as references to
      topics rather than file names, and fall back to a file link only
      if the topic is not found in the target package. The earlier rule
      which prioritized file names over topics can be restored by
      setting the environment variable _R_HELP_LINKS_TO_TOPICS_ to a
      false value.
    * c() now removes NULL arguments before dispatching to methods,
      thus simplifying the implementation of c() methods, _but_ for
      back compatibility keeps NULL when it is the first argument.
      (From a report and patch proposal by Lionel Henry in PR#17900.)
    * Vectorize()'s result function's environment no longer keeps
      unneeded objects.
    * Function ...elt() now propagates visibility consistently with
      ..n.  (Thanks to Lionel Henry's PR#17905.)
    * capture.output() no longer uses non-standard evaluation to
      evaluate its arguments.  This makes evaluation of functions like
      parent.frame() more consistent.  (Thanks to Lionel Henry's
    * packBits(bits, type="double") now works as inverse of
      numToBits().  (Thanks to Bill Dunlap's proposal in PR#17914.)
    * curlGetHeaders() has two new arguments, timeout to specify the
      timeout for that call (overriding getOption("timeout")) and TLS
      to specify the minimum TLS protocol version to be used for
      https:// URIs (_inter alia_ providing a means to check for sites
      using deprecated TLS versions 1.0 and 1.1).
    * For nls(), an optional constant scaleOffset may be added to the
      denominator of the relative offset convergence test for cases
      where the fit of a model is expected to be exact, thanks to a
      proposal by John Nash.  nls(*, trace=TRUE) now also shows the
      convergence criterion.
    * Numeric differentiation _via_ numericDeriv() gets new optional
      arguments eps and central, the latter for taking central divided
      differences.  The latter can be activated for nls() via
      nls.control(nDcentral = TRUE).
    * nls() now passes the trace and control arguments to getInitial(),
      notably for all self-starting models, so these can also be fit in
      zero-noise situations via a scaleOffset.  For this reason, the
      initial function of a selfStart model must now have ... in its
      argument list.
    * bquote(splice = TRUE) can now splice expression vectors with
      attributes: this makes it possible to splice the result of
      parse(keep.source = TRUE).  (Report and patch provided by Lionel
      Henry in PR#17869.)
    * textConnection() gets an optional name argument.
    * get(), exists(), and get0() now signal an error if the first
      argument has length greater than 1.  Previously additional
      elements were silently ignored.  (Suggested by Antoine Fabri on
    * R now provides a shorthand notation for creating functions, e.g.
      \(x) x + 1 is parsed as function(x) x + 1.
    * R now provides a simple native forward pipe syntax |>.  The
      simple form of the forward pipe inserts the left-hand side as the
      first argument in the right-hand side call.  The pipe
      implementation as a syntax transformation was motivated by
      suggestions from Jim Hester and Lionel Henry.
    * all.equal(f, g) for functions now by default also compares their
      environment(.)s, notably via new all.equal method for class
      function.  Comparison of nls() fits, e.g., may now need
      all.equal(m1, m2, check.environment = FALSE).
    * .libPaths() gets a new option, allowing to _not_
      include the site library.  (Thanks to Dario Strbenac's suggestion
      and Gabe Becker's PR#18016.)
    * Lithuanian translations are now available.  (Thanks to Rimantas
    * names() now works for DOTSXP objects.  On the other hand, in
      R-lang, the R language manual, we now warn against relying on the
      structure or even existence of such dot-dot-dot objects.
    * all.equal() no longer gives an error on DOTSXP objects.
    * capabilities("cairo") now applies only to the file-based devices
      as it is now possible (if very unusual) to build R with Cairo
      support for those but not for X11().
    * There is optional support for tracing the progress of
      loadNamespace() - see its help.
    * (Not Windows.)  l10n_info() reports an additional element, the
      name of the encoding as reported by the OS (which may differ from
      the encoding part (if any) of the result from
    * New function gregexec() which generalizes regexec() to find _all_
      disjoint matches and well as all substrings corresponding to
      parenthesized subexpressions of the given regular expression.
      (Contributed by Brodie Gaslam.)
    * New function charClass() in package utils to query the
      wide-character classification functions in use (such as
    * The names of quantile()'s result no longer depend on the global
      getOption("digits"), but quantile() gets a new optional argument
      digits = 7 instead.
    * grep(), sub(), regexp and variants work considerably faster for
      long factors with few levels.  (Thanks to Michael Chirico's
    * Provide grouping of x11() graphics windows within a window
      manager such as Gnome or Unity; thanks to a patch by Ivan Krylov
      posted to R-devel.
    * The split() method for class data.frame now allows the f argument
      to be specified as a formula.
    * sprintf now warns on arguments unused by the format string.
    * New palettes "Rocket" and "Mako" for hcl.colors() (approximating
      palettes of the same name from the 'viridisLite' package).
      Contributed by Achim Zeileis.
    * The base environment and its namespace are now locked (so one can
      no longer add bindings to these or remove from these).
    * Rterm handling of multi-byte characters has been improved,
      allowing use of such characters when supported by the current
    * Rterm now accepts ALT+ +xxxxxxxx sequences to enter Unicode
      characters as hex digits.
    * Environment variable LC_ALL on Windows now takes precedence over
      LC_CTYPE and variables for other supported categories, matching
      the POSIX behaviour.
    * duplicated() and anyDuplicated() are now optimized for integer
      and real vectors that are known to be sorted via the ALTREP
      framework. Contributed by Gabriel Becker via PR#17993.
    * The graphics engine version, R_GE_version, has been bumped to 14
      and so packages that provide graphics devices should be
    * Graphics devices should now specify deviceVersion to indicate
      what version of the graphics engine they support.
    * Graphics devices can now specify deviceClip.  If TRUE, the
      graphics engine will never perform any clipping of output itself.
      The clipping that the graphics engine does perform (for both
      canClip = TRUE and canClip = FALSE) has been improved to avoid
      producing unnecessary artifacts in clipped output.
    * The grid package now allows gpar(fill) to be a linearGradient(),
      a radialGradient(), or a pattern().  The viewport(clip) can now
      also be a grob, which defines a clipping path, and there is a new
      viewport(mask) that can also be a grob, which defines a mask.
      These new features are only supported so far on the Cairo-based
      graphics devices and on the pdf() device.
    * (Not Windows.)  A warning is given when a Cairo-based type is
      specified for a png(), jpeg(), tiff() or bmp() device but Cairo
      is unsupported (so type = "Xlib" is tried instead).
    * grSoftVersion() now reports the versions of FreeType and
      FontConfig if they are used directly (not _via_ Pango), as is
      most commonly done on macOS.
    * The _standalone_ libRmath math library and R's C API now provide
      log1pexp() again as documented, and gain log1mexp().
    * configure checks for a program pkgconf if program pkg-config is
      not found.  These are now only looked for on the path (like
      almost all other programs) so if needed specify a full path to
      the command in PKG_CONFIG, for example in file
    * C99 function iswblank is required - it was last seen missing ca
      2003 so the workaround has been removed.
    * There are new configure options --with-internal-iswxxxxx,
    - -with-internal-towlower and --with-internal-wcwidth which allows
      the system functions for wide-character classification,
      case-switching and width (wcwidth and wcswidth) to be replaced by
      internal ones.  The first has long been used on macOS, AIX (and
      Windows) but this enables it to be unselected there and selected
      for other platforms (it is the new default on Solaris).  The
      second is new in this version of R and is selected by default on
      macOS and Solaris.  The third has long been the default and
      remains so as it contains customizations for East Asian
      System versions of these functions are often minimally
      implemented (sometimes only for ASCII characters) and may not
      cover the full range of Unicode points: for example Solaris (and
      Windows) only cover the Basic Multilingual Plane.
    * Cairo installations without X11 are more likely to be detected by
      configure, when the file-based Cairo graphics devices will be
      available but not X11(type = "cairo").
    * There is a new configure option --with-static-cairo which is the
      default on macOS.  This should be used when only static cairo
      (and where relevant, Pango) libraries are available.
    * Cairo-based graphics devices on platforms without Pango but with
      FreeType/FontConfig will make use of the latter for font
    * Configuring with flag --enable-lto=R now also uses LTO when
      installing the recommended packages.
    * R CMD INSTALL and R CMD SHLIB have a new flag --use-LTO to use
      LTO when compiling code, for use with R configured with
    - -enable-lto=R.  For R configured with --enable-lto, they have
      the new flag --no-use-LTO.
      Packages can opt in or out of LTO compilation _via_ a UseLTO
      field in the DESCRIPTION file.  (As usual this can be overridden
      by the command-line flags.)
    BUILDING R on Windows:
    * for GCC >= 8, FC_LEN_T is defined in config.h and hence character
      lengths are passed from C to Fortran in _inter alia_ BLAS and
      LAPACK calls.
    * There is a new text file src/gnuwin32/README.compilation, which
      outlines how C/Fortran code compilation is organized and
      documents new features:
    * R can be built with Link-Time Optimization with a suitable
      compiler - doing so with GCC 9.2 showed several
      inconsistencies which have been corrected.
    * There is support for cross-compiling the C and Fortran code
      in R and standard packages on suitable (Linux) platforms.
      This is mainly intended to allow developers to test later
      versions of compilers - for example using GCC 9.2 or 10.x has
      detected issues that GCC 8.3 in Rtools40 does not.
    * There is experimental support for cross-building R packages
      with C, C++ and/or Fortran code.
    * The R installer can now be optionally built to support a single
      architecture (only 64-bit or only 32-bit).
    * The default C++ standard has been changed to C++14 where
      available (which it is on all currently checked platforms): if
      not (as before) C++11 is used if available otherwise C++ is not
      Packages which specify C++11 will still be installed using C++11.
      C++14 compilers may give deprecation warnings, most often for
      std::random_shuffle (deprecated in C++14 and removed in C++17).
      Either specify C++11 (see 'Writing R Extensions') or modernize
      the code and if needed specify C++14.  The latter has been
      supported since R 3.4.0 so the package's DESCRIPTION would need
      to include something like
      Depends: R (>= 3.4)
    * R CMD INSTALL and R CMD SHLIB make use of their flag --use-LTO
      when the LTO_OPT make macro is set in file etc/${R_ARCH}/Makeconf
      or in a personal/site Makevars file.  (For details see 'Writing R
      Extensions' SS4.5.)
      This provides a valuable check on code consistency.  It does work
      with GCC 8.3 as in Rtools40, but that does not detect everything
      the CRAN checks with current GCC do.
    * The default personal library directory on builds with
    - -enable-aqua (including CRAN builds) now differs by CPU type,
      one of
      This uses the CPU type R (and hence the packages) were built for,
      so when a x86_64 build of R is run under Rosetta emulation on an
      arm64 Mac, the first is used.
    * R CMD check can now scan package functions for bogus return
      statements, which were possibly intended as return() calls (wish
      of PR#17180, patch by Sebastian Meyer). This check can be
      activated via the new environment variable
      _R_CHECK_BOGUS_RETURN_, true for --as-cran.
    * R CMD build omits tarballs and binaries of previous builds from
      the top-level package directory.  (PR#17828, patch by Sebastian
    * R CMD check now runs sanity checks on the use of LazyData, for
      example that a data directory is present and that
      LazyDataCompression is not specified without LazyData and has a
      documented value.  For packages with large LazyData databases
      without specifying LazyDataCompression, there is a reference to
      the code given in 'Writing R Extensions' SS1.1.6 to test the
      choice of compression (as in all the CRAN packages tested a
      non-default method was preferred).
    * R CMD build removes LazyData and LazyDataCompression fields from
      the DESCRIPTION file of packages without a data directory.
    * The parser now treats \Unnnnnnnn escapes larger than the upper
      limit for Unicode points (\U10FFFF) as an error as they cannot be
      represented by valid UTF-8.
      Where such escapes are used for outputting non-printable
      (including unassigned) characters, 6 hex digits are used (rather
      than 8 with leading zeros).  For clarity, braces are used, for
      example \U{0effff}.
    * The parser now looks for non-ASCII spaces on Solaris (as
      previously on most other OSes).
    * There are warnings (including from the parser) on the use of
      unpaired surrogate Unicode points such as \uD834.  (These cannot
      be converted to valid UTF-8.)
    * Functions nchar(), tolower(), toupper() and chartr() and those
      using regular expressions have more support for inputs with a
      marked Latin-1 encoding.
    * The character-classification functions used (by default) to
      replace the system iswxxxxx functions on Windows, macOS and AIX
      have been updated to Unicode 13.0.0.
      The character-width tables have been updated to include new
      assignments in Unicode 13.0.0.
    * The code for evaluating default (extended) regular expressions
      now uses the same character-classification functions as the rest
      of R (previously they differed on Windows, macOS and AIX).
    * There is a build-time option to replace the system's
      wide-character wctrans C function by tables shipped with R: use
      configure option --with-internal-towlower or (on Windows)
    - DUSE_RI18N_CASE in CFLAGS when building R.  This may be needed
      to allow tolower() and toupper() to work with Unicode characters
      beyond the Basic Multilingual Plane where not supported by system
      functions (e.g. on Solaris where it is the new default).
    * R is more careful when truncating UTF-8 and other multi-byte
      strings that are too long to be printed, passed to the system or
      libraries or placed into an internal buffer.  Truncation will no
      longer produce incomplete multibyte characters.
    * Function plclust() from the package stats and
      package.dependencies(), pkgDepends(), getDepList(),
      installFoundDepends(), and vignetteDepends() from package tools
      are defunct.
    * Defunct functions checkNEWS() and readNEWS() from package tools
      and CRAN.packages() from utils have been removed.
    * R CMD config CXXCPP is defunct (it was deprecated in R 3.6.2).
    * parallel::detectCores() drops support for Irix (retired in 2013).
    * The LINPACK argument to chol.default(), chol2inv(),
      solve.default() and svd() has been defunct since R 3.1.0.  It was
      silently ignored up to R 4.0.3 but now gives an error.
    * Subsetting/indexing, such as ddd[*] or ddd$x on a DOTSXP
      (dot-dot-dot) object ddd has been disabled; it worked by accident
      only and was undocumented.
    * Many more C-level allocations (mainly by malloc and strdup) are
      checked for success with suitable alternative actions.
    * Bug fix for replayPlot(); this was turning off graphics engine
      display list recording if a recorded plot was replayed in the
      same session.  The impact of the bug became visible if resize the
      device after replay OR if attempted another savePlot() after
      replay (empty display list means empty screen on resize or empty
      saved plot).
    * R CMD check etc now warn when a package exports non-existing S4
      classes or methods, also in case of no "methods" presence.
      (Reported by Alex Bertram; reproducible example and patch by
      Sebastian Meyer in PR#16662.)
    * boxplot() now also accepts calls for labels such as ylab, the
      same as plot().  (Reported by Marius Hofert.)
    * The help page for xtabs() now correctly states that addNA is
      setting na.action = na.pass among others.  (Reported as PR#17770
      by Thomas Soeiro.)
    * The R CMD check <pkg> gives a longer and more comprehensible
      message when DESCRIPTION misses dependencies, e.g., in Imports:.
      (Thanks to the contributors of PR#17179.)
    * update.default() now calls the generic update() on the formula to
      work correctly for models with extended formulas.  (As reported
      and suggested by Neal Fultz in PR#17865.)
    * The horizontal position of leaves in a dendrogram is now correct
      also with center = FALSE.  (PR#14938, patch from Sebastian
    * all.equal.POSIXt() no longer warns about and subsequently ignores
      inconsistent "tzone" attributes, but describes the difference in
      its return value (PR#17277).  This check can be disabled _via_
      the new argument check.tzone = FALSE as suggested by Sebastian
    * as.POSIXct() now populates the "tzone" attribute from its tz
      argument when x is a logical vector consisting entirely of NA
    * x[[2^31]] <- v now works.  (Thanks to the report and patch by
      Suharto Anggono in PR#17330.)
    * In log-scale graphics, axis() ticks and label positions are now
      computed more carefully and symmetrically in their range,
      typically providing _more_ ticks, fulfilling wishes in PR#17936.
      The change really corresponds to an improved axisTicks() (package
      grDevices), potentially influencing grid and lattice, for
    * qnorm(<very large negative>, log.p=TRUE) is now correct to at
      least five digits where it was catastrophically wrong,
    * sum(df) and similar "Summary"- and "Math"-group member functions
      now work for data frames df with logical columns, notably also of
      zero rows.  (Reported to R-devel by Martin "b706".)
    * unsplit() had trouble with tibbles due to unsound use of rep(NA,
      len)-indexing, which should use NA_integer_ (Reported to R-devel
      by Mario Annau.)
    * pnorm(x, log.p = TRUE) underflows to -Inf slightly later.
    * show(<hidden S4 generic>) prints better and without quotes for
      non-hidden S4 generics.
    * read.table() and relatives treated an "NA" column name as missing
      when check.names = FALSE PR#18007.
    * Parsing strings containing UTF-16 surrogate pairs such as
      "\uD834\uDD1E" works better on some (uncommon) platforms.
      sprintf("%X", utf8ToInt("\uD834\uDD1E")) should now give "1D11E"
      on all platforms.
    * identical(x,y) is no longer true for differing DOTSXP objects,
      fixing PR#18032.
    * str() now works correctly for DOTSXP and related exotics, even
      when these are doomed.
      Additionally, it no longer fails for lists with a class and
      "irregular" method definitions such that e.g. lapply(*) will
      necessarily fail, as currently for different igraph objects.
    * Too long lines in environment files (e.g. Renviron) no longer
      crash R. This limit has been increased to 100,000 bytes.
    * There is a further workaround for FreeType giving incorrect
      italic font faces with cairo-based graphics devices on macOS.
    * add_datalist(*, force = TRUE) (from package tools) now actually
      updates an existing data/datalist file for new content.  (Thanks
      to a report and patch by Sebastian Meyer in PR#18048.)
    * cut.Date() and cut.POSIXt() could produce an empty last interval
      for breaks = "months" or breaks = "years".  (Reported as PR#18053
      by Christopher Carbone.)
    * Detection of the encoding of 'regular' macOS locales such as
      en_US (which is UTF-8) had been broken by a macOS change:
      fortunately these are now rarely used with en_US.UTF-8 being
    * sub() and gsub(pattern, repl, x, *) now keep attributes of x such
      as names() also when pattern is NA (PR#18079).
    * Time differences ("difftime" objects) get a replacement and a
      rep() method to keep "units" consistent.  (Thanks to a report and
      patch by Nicolas Bennett in PR#18066.)
    * The \RdOpts macro, setting defaults for \Sexpr options in an Rd
      file, had been ineffective since R 2.12.0: it now works again.
      (Thanks to a report and patch by Sebastian Meyer in PR#18073.)
    * mclapply and pvec no longer accidentally terminate parallel
      processes started before by mcparallel or related calls in
      package parallel (PR#18078).
    * grep and other functions for evaluating (extended) regular
      expressions handle in Unicode also strings not explicitly flagged
      UTF-8, but flagged native when running in UTF-8 locale.
    * Fixed a crash in fifo implementation on Windows (PR#18031).
    * Binary mode in fifo on Windows is now properly detected from
      argument open (PR#15600, PR#18031).
* Tue May 18 2021 Detlef Steuer <>
  - improved spec file according to comments of dimstar in
* Thu May 06 2021 Detlef Steuer <>
  - To get in sync with d:l:R:autoCRAN the Matrix package's split
    in -devel was reversed.
* Wed Mar 31 2021 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.0.5:
    * The change to the internal table in R 4.0.4 for iswprint has been
      reverted: it contained some errors in printability of 'East
    Asian' characters.
    * For packages using LazyData, R CMD build ignored the
    - -resave-data option and the BuildResaveData field of the
    DESCRIPTION file (in R versions 4.0.0 to 4.0.4).
* Mon Feb 15 2021 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.0.4:
    * File share/texmf/tex/latex/jss.cls has been updated to work with
      LaTeX versions since Oct 2020.
    * Unicode character width tables (as used by nchar(, type = "w"))
      have been updated to Unicode 12.1 by Brodie Gaslam (PR#17781),
      including many emoji.
    * The internal table for iswprint (used on Windows, macOS and AIX)
      has been updated to include many recent Unicode characters.
    * If an external BLAS is specified by --with-blas=foo or _via_
      environment variable BLAS_LIBS is not found, this is now a
      configuration error.  The previous behaviour was not clear from
      the documentation: it was to continue the search as if
    - -with-blas=yes was specified.
    * all.equal(x,y) now "sees" the two different NAs in factors,
      thanks to Bill Dunlap and others in PR#17897.
    * (~ NULL)[1] and similar formula subsetting now works, thanks to a
      report and patch by Henrik Bengtsson in PR#17935.  Additionally,
      subsetting leaving an empty formula now works too, thanks to
      suggestions by Suharto Anggono.
    * .traceback(n) keeps source references again, as before R 4.0.0,
      fixing a regression; introduced by the PR#17580, reported
      including two patch proposals by Brodie Gaslam.
    * unlist(plst, recursive=FALSE) no longer drops content for
      pairlists with list components, thanks to the report and patch by
      Suharto Anggono in PR#17950.
    * iconvlist() now also works on MUSL based (Linux) systems, from a
      report and patch suggestion by Wesley Chan in PR#17970.
    * round() and signif() no longer tolerate wrong argument names,
      notably in 1-argument calls; reported by Shane Mueller on R-devel
      (mailing list); later reported as PR#17976.
    * .Machine has longdouble.* elements only if
      capabilities("long.double") is true, as documented.  (Previously
      they were included if the platform had long double identical to
      double, as ARM does.)
    * p.adjust(numeric(), n=0) now works, fixing PR#18002.
    * identical(x,y) no longer prints "Unknown Type .." for typeof(x)
      == "..." objects.
    * Fix (auto-)print()ing of named complex vectors, see PR#17868 and
    * all.equal(<language>, <...>) now works, fixing PR#18029.
    *, row.names=NULL) now behaves in line with
      data.frame(), disregarding names of components of L, fixing
      PR#18034, reported by Kevin Tappe.
    * checkRdaFiles(ff)$version is now correct also when ff contains
      files of different versions, thanks to a report and patch from
      Sebastian Meyer in PR#18041.
    * macOS: Quartz device live drawing could fail (no plot is shown)
      if the system changes the drawing context after view update
      (often the case since macOS Big Sur). System log may show
      "CGContextDelegateCreateForContext: invalid context" error.
* Sat Oct 10 2020 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.0.3:
    * On platforms using configure option --with-internal-tzcode,
      additional values "internal" and (on macOS only) "macOS" are
      accepted for the environment variable TZDIR.  (See ?TZDIR.)
      On macOS, "macOS" is used by default if the system timezone
      database is a newer version than that in the R installation.
    * When install.packages(type = "source") fails to find a package in
      a repository it mentions package versions which are excluded by
      their R version requirement and links to hints on why a package
      might not be found.
    * The default value for options("timeout") can be set from
      enviromnent variable R_DEFAULT_INTERNET_TIMEOUT, still defaulting
      to 60 (seconds) if that is not set or invalid.
      This may be needed when child R processes are doing downloads,
      for example during the installation of source packages which
      download jars or other forms of data.
    * There is now support for parallelized Link-Time Optimization
      (LTO) with GCC and for 'thin' LTO with clang _via_ setting the
      LTO macro.
    * There is support for setting a different LTO flag for the Fortran
      compiler, including to empty when mixing clang and gfortran (as
      on macOS).  See file
    * There is a new LTO_LD macro to set linker options for LTO
      compilation, for example to select an alternative linker or to
      parallelize thin LTO.
    * The LINPACK argument to chol.default(), chol2inv(),
      solve.default() and svd() has been defunct since R 3.1.0.  Using
      it now gives a warning which will become an error in R 4.1.0.
    * The code mitigating stack overflow with PCRE regexps on very long
      strings is enabled for PCRE2 < 10.30 also when JIT is enabled,
      since stack overflows have been seen in that case.
    * Fix to correctly show the group labels in dotchart() (which where
      lost in the ylab improvement for R 4.0.0).
    * addmargins(*, ..) now also works when fn() is a local function,
      thanks to bug report and patch PR#17124 from Alex Bertram.
    * rank(x) and hence sort(x) now work when x is an object (as per
      is.object(x)) of type "raw" _and_ provides a valid `[` method,
      e.g., for gmp::as.bigz(.) numbers.
    * chisq.test(*, simulate.p.value=TRUE) and r2dtable() now work
      correctly for large table entries (in the millions).  Reported by
      Sebastian Meyer and investigated by more helpers in PR#16184.
    * Low-level socket read/write operations have been fixed to
      correctly signal communication errors. Previously, such errors
      could lead to a segfault due to invalid memory access. Reported
      and debugged by Dmitriy Selivanov in PR#17850.
    * quantile(x, pr) works more consistently for pr values slightly
      outside [0,1], thanks to Suharto Anggono's PR#17891.
      Further, quantile(x, prN, names=FALSE) now works even when prN
      contains NAs, thanks to Anggono's PR#17892.  Ditto for ordered
      factors or Date objects when type = 1 or 3, thanks to PR#17899.
    * Libcurl-based internet access, including curlGetHeaders(), was
      not respecting the "timeout" option.  If this causes
      unanticipated timeouts, consider increasing the default by
    * as.Date(<char>) now also works with an initial "", thanks to
      Michael Chirico's PR#17909.
    * isS3stdGeneric(f) now detects an S3 generic also when it it is
      trace()d, thanks to Gabe Becker's PR#17917.
    * R_allocLD() has been fixed to return memory aligned for long
      double type PR#16534.
    * fisher.test() no longer segfaults when called again after its
      internal stack has been exceeded PR#17904.
    * Accessing a long vector represented by a compact integer sequence
      no longer segfaults (reported and debugged by Hugh Parsonage).
    * duplicated() now works also for strings with multiple encodings
      inside a single vector PR#17809.
    * phyper(11, 15, 0, 12, log.p=TRUE) no longer gives NaN; reported
      as PR#17271 by Alexey Stukalov.
    * Fix incorrect calculation in logLik.nls() PR#16100, patch from
      Sebastian Meyer.
    * A very old bug could cause a segfault in model.matrix() when
      terms involved logical variables.  Part of PR#17879.
    * model.frame.default() allowed data = 1, leading to involuntary
      variable capture (rest of PR#17879).
    * tar() no longer skips non-directory files, thanks to a patch by
      Sebastian Meyer, fixing the remaining part of PR#16716.
* Mon Jun 22 2020 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.0.2:
    * R CMD check skips vignette re-building (with a warning) if the
      VignetteBuilder package(s) are not available.
    * Paths with non-ASCII characters caused problems for package
      loading on Windows PR#17833.
    * Using tcltk widgets no longer crashes R on Windows.
    * source(*, echo=TRUE) no longer fails in some cases with empty
      lines; reported by Bill Dunlap in PR#17769.
    * on.exit() now correctly matches named arguments, thanks to
      PR#17815 (including patch) by Brodie Gaslam.
    * regexpr(*, perl=TRUE) no longer returns incorrect positions into
      text containing characters outside of the Unicode Basic
      Multilingual Plane on Windows.
* Sat Jun 06 2020 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 4.0.1:
    * paste() and paste0() gain a new optional argument recycle0.  When
      set to true, zero-length arguments are recycled leading to
      character(0) after the sep-concatenation, i.e., to the empty
      string "" if collapse is a string and to the zero-length value
      character(0) when collapse = NULL.
      A package whose code uses this should depend on R (>= 4.0.1).
    * The summary(<warnings>) method now maps the counts correctly to
      the warning messages.
    * aov(frml, ...) now also works where the formula deparses to more
      than 500 characters, thanks to a report and patch proposal by Jan
    * Fix a dozen places (code, examples) as Sys.setlocale() returns
      the new rather than the previous setting.
    * Fix for adding two complex grid units via sum().  Thanks to Gu
      Zuguang for the report and Thomas Lin Pedersen for the patch.
    * Fix parallel::mclapply(..., mc.preschedule=FALSE) to handle raw
      vector results correctly. PR#17779
    * Computing the base value, i.e., 2, "everywhere", now uses
      FLT_RADIX, as the original machar code looped indefinitely on the
      ppc64 architecture for the longdouble case.
    * In R 4.0.0, sort.list(x) when is.object(x) was true, e.g., for x
      <- I(letters), was accidentally using method = "radix".
      Consequently, e.g., merge(<data.frame>) was much slower than
      previously; reported in PR#17794.
    * plot(y ~ x, ylab = quote(y[i])) now works, as e.g., for xlab;
      related to PR#10525.
    * parallel::detect.cores(all.tests = TRUE) tries a matching OS name
      before the other tests (which were intended only for unknown
    * Parse data for raw strings is now recorded correctly. Reported by
      Gabor Csardi.
* Fri Apr 24 2020 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN 4.0.0:
    * Packages need to be (re-)installed under this version (4.0.0) of
    * matrix objects now also inherit from class "array", so e.g.,
      class(diag(1)) is c("matrix", "array").  This invalidates code
      incorrectly assuming that class(matrix_obj)) has length one.
      S3 methods for class "array" are now dispatched for matrix
    * There is a new syntax for specifying _raw_ character constants
      similar to the one used in C++: r"(...)" with ... any character
      sequence not containing the sequence )".  This makes it easier to
      write strings that contain backslashes or both single and double
      quotes.  For more details see ?Quotes.
    * R now uses a stringsAsFactors = FALSE default, and hence by
      default no longer converts strings to factors in calls to
      data.frame() and read.table().
      A large number of packages relied on the previous behaviour and
      so have needed/will need updating.
    * The plot() S3 generic function is now in package base rather than
      package graphics, as it is reasonable to have methods that do not
      use the graphics package.  The generic is currently re-exported
      from the graphics namespace to allow packages importing it from
      there to continue working, but this may change in future.
      Packages which define S4 generics for plot() should be
      re-installed and package code using such generics from other
      packages needs to ensure that they are imported rather than rely
      on their being looked for on the search path (as in a namespace,
      the base namespace has precedence over the search path).
    * Reference counting is now used instead of the NAMED mechanism for
      determining when objects can be safely mutated in base C code.
      This reduces the need for copying in some cases and should allow
      further optimizations in the future.  It should help make the
      internal code easier to maintain.
      This change is expected to have almost no impact on packages
      using supported coding practices in their C/C++ code.
    * This version of R is built against the PCRE2 library for
      Perl-like regular expressions, if available.  (On non-Windows
      platforms PCRE1 can optionally be used if PCRE2 is not available
      at build time.)  The version of PCRE in use can be obtained _via_
      extSoftVersion(): PCRE1 (formerly known as 'PCRE') has versions
      <= 8, PCRE2 versions >= 10.
    * Making PCRE2 available when building R from source is strongly
      recommended (preferably version 10.30 or later) as PCRE1 is no
      longer developed: version 8.44 is 'likely to be the final
    * PCRE2 reports errors for some regular expressions that were
      accepted by PCRE1.  A hyphen now has to be escaped in a character
      class to be interpreted as a literal (unless first or last in the
      class definition).  \R, \B and \X are no longer allowed in
      character classes (PCRE1 treated these as literals).
    * Option PCRE_study is no longer used with PCRE2, and is reported
      as FALSE when that is in use.
    * assertError() and assertWarning() (in package tools) can now
      check for _specific_ error or warning classes _via_ the new
      optional second argument classes (which is not back compatible
      with previous use of an unnamed second argument).
    * DF2formula(), the utility for the data frame method of formula(),
      now works without parsing and explicit evaluation, starting from
      Suharto Anggono's suggestion in PR#17555.
    * approxfun() and approx() gain a new argument na.rm defaulting to
      true.  If set to false, missing y values now propagate into the
      interpolated values.
    * Long vectors are now supported as the seq argument of a for()
    * str(x) gets a new deparse.lines option with a default to speed it
      up when x is a large call object.
    * The internal traceback object produced when an error is signalled
      (.Traceback), now contains the calls rather than the _deparse()d_
      calls, deferring the deparsing to the user-level functions
      .traceback() and traceback().  This fulfils the wish of PR#17580,
      reported including two patch proposals by Brodie Gaslam.
    * data.matrix() now converts character columns to factors and from
      this to integers.
    * package.skeleton() now explicitly lists all exports in the
      NAMESPACE file.
    * New function .S3method() to register S3 methods in R scripts.
    * file.path() has some support for file paths not in the session
      encoding, e.g. with UTF-8 inputs in a non-UTF-8 locale the output
      is marked as UTF-8.
    * Most functions with file-path inputs will give an explicit error
      if a file-path input in a marked encoding cannot be translated
      (to the native encoding or in some cases on Windows to UTF-8),
      rather than translate to a different file path using escapes.
      Some (such as dir.exists(), file.exists(), file.access(),, list.files(), normalizePath() and path.expand())
      treat this like any other non-existent file, often with a
    * There is a new help document accessed by help("file path
      encoding") detailing how file paths with marked encodings are
    * New function list2DF() for creating data frames from lists of
    * iconv() has a new option sub = "Unicode" to translate UTF-8 input
      invalid in the to encoding using <U+xxxx> escapes.
    * There is a new function infoRDS() providing information about the
      serialization format of a serialized object.
    * S3 method lookup now by default skips the elements of the search
      path between the global and base environments.
    * Added an argument add_datalist(*, small.size = 0) to allow the
      creation of a data/datalist file even when the total size of the
      data sets is small.
    * The backquote function bquote() has a new argument splice to
      enable splicing a computed list of values into an expression,
      like ,@ in LISP's backquote.
    * The formula interface to t.test() and wilcox.test() has been
      extended to handle one-sample and paired tests.
    * The palette() function has a new default set of colours (which
      are less saturated and have better accessibility properties).
      There are also some new built-in palettes, which are listed by
      the new palette.pals() function.  These include the old default
      palette under the name "R3". Finally, the new palette.colors()
      function allows a subset of colours to be selected from any of
      the built-in palettes.
    * n2mfrow() gains an option asp = 1 to specify the aspect ratio,
      fulfilling the wish and extending the proposal of Michael Chirico
      in PR#17648.
    * For head(x, n) and tail() the default and other S3 methods
      notably for _vector_ n, e.g. to get a "corner" of a matrix, has
      been extended to array's of higher dimension thanks to the patch
      proposal by Gabe Becker in PR#17652.  Consequently, optional
      argument addrownums is deprecated and replaced by the (more
      general) argument keepnums.  An invalid second argument n now
      leads to typically more easily readable error messages.
    * New function .class2() provides the full character vector of
      class names used for S3 method dispatch.
    * Printing methods(..) now uses a new format() method.
    * sort.list(x) now works for non-atomic objects x and method =
      "auto" (the default) or "radix" in cases order(x) works.
    * Where they are available, writeBin() allows long vectors.
    * New function deparse1() produces one string, wrapping deparse(),
      to be used typically in deparse1(substitute(*)), e.g., to fix
    * wilcox.test() enhancements: In the (non-paired) two-sample case,
      Inf values are treated as very large for robustness consistency.
      If exact computations are used, the result now has "exact" in the
      method element of its return value.  New arguments tol.root and
      digits.rank where the latter may be used for stability to treat
      very close numbers as ties.
    * readBin() and writeBin() now report an error for an invalid
      endian value.  The affected code needs to be fixed with care as
      the old undocumented behavior was to swap endian-ness in such
    * sequence() is now an S3 generic with an internally implemented
      default method, and gains arguments to generate more complex
      sequences.  Based on code from the S4Vectors Bioconductor package
      and the advice of Herv'e Pag`es.
    * print()'s default method and many other methods (by calling the
      default eventually and passing ...) now make use of a new
      optional width argument, avoiding the need for the user to set
      and reset options("width").
    * memDecompress() supports the RFC 1952 format (e.g. in-memory
      copies of gzip-compressed files) as well as RFC 1950.
    * memCompress() and memDecompress() support long raw vectors for
      types "gzip" and "zx".
    * sweep() and slice.index() can now use names of dimnames for their
      MARGIN argument (apply has had this for almost a decade).
    * New function proportions() and marginSums(). These should replace
      the unfortunately named prop.table() and margin.table(). They are
      drop-in replacements, but also add named-margin functionality.
      The old function names are retained as aliases for
    * Functions rbinom(), rgeom(), rhyper(), rpois(), rnbinom(),
      rsignrank() and rwilcox() which have returned integer since R
      3.0.0 and hence NA when the numbers would have been outside the
      integer range, now return double vectors (without NAs, typically)
      in these cases.
    * matplot(x,y) (and hence matlines() and matpoints()) now call the
      corresponding methods of plot() and lines(), e.g, when x is a
      "Date" or "POSIXct" object; prompted by Spencer Graves'
    * stopifnot() now allows customizing error messages via argument
      names, thanks to a patch proposal by Neal Fultz in PR#17688.
    * unlink() gains a new argument expand to disable wildcard and
      tilde expansion.  Elements of x of value "~" are now ignored.
    * mle() in the stats4 package has had its interface extended so
      that arguments to the negative log-likelihood function can be one
      or more vectors, with similar conventions applying to bounds,
      start values, and parameter values to be kept fixed.  This
      required a minor extension to class "mle", so saved objects from
      earlier versions may need to be recomputed.
    * The default for pdf() is now useDingbats = FALSE.
    * The default fill colour for hist() and boxplot() is now col =
    * The default order of the levels on the y-axis for spineplot() and
      cdplot() has been reversed.
    * If the R_ALWAYS_INSTALL_TESTS environment variable is set to a
      true value, R CMD INSTALL behaves as if the --install-tests
      option is always specified. Thanks to Reinhold Koch for the
    * New function R_user_dir() in package tools suggests paths
      appropriate for storing R-related user-specific data,
      configuration and cache files.
    * capabilities() gains a new logical option Xchk to avoid warnings
      about X11-related capabilities.
    * The internal implementation of grid units has changed, but the
      only visible effects at user-level should be
    * a slightly different print format for some units (especially
      unit arithmetic),
    * faster performance (for unit operations) and
    * two new functions unitType() and unit.psum().
      Based on code contributed by Thomas Lin Pedersen.
    * When internal dispatch for and rep_len() fails, there
      is an attempt to dispatch on the equivalent call to rep().
    * Object .Machine now contains new longdouble.* entries (when R
      uses long doubles internally).
    * news() has been enhanced to cover the news on R 3.x and 2.x.
    * For consistency, N <- NULL; N[[1]] <- val now turns N into a list
      also when val) has length one.  This enables dimnames(r1)[[1]] <-
      "R1" for a 1-row matrix r1, fixing PR#17719 reported by Serguei
    * deparse(..), dump(..), and dput(x, control = "all") now include
      control option "digits17" which typically ensures 1:1
      invertibility.  New option control = "exact" ensures numeric
      exact invertibility via "hexDigits".
    * When loading data sets via read.table(), data() now uses
      LC_COLLATE=C to ensure locale-independent results for possible
      string-to-factor conversions.
    * A server socket connection, a new connection type representing a
      listening server socket, is created via serverSocket() and can
      accept multiple socket connections via socketAccept().
    * New function socketTimeout() changes the connection timeout of a
      socket connection.
    * The time needed to start a homogeneous PSOCK cluster on localhost
      with many nodes has been significantly reduced (package
    * New globalCallingHandlers() function to establish global
      condition handlers.  This allows registering default handlers for
      specific condition classes. Developed in collaboration with
      Lionel Henry.
    * New function tryInvokeRestart() to invoke a specified restart if
      one is available and return without signaling an error if no such
      restart is found.  Contributed by Lionel Henry in PR#17598.
    * str(x) now shows the length of attributes in some cases for a
      data frame x.
    * Rprof() gains a new argument filter.callframes to request that
      intervening call frames due to lazy evaluation or explicit eval()
      calls be omitted from the recorded profile data.  Contributed by
      Lionel Henry in PR#17595.
    * The handling of ${FOO-bar} and ${FOO:-bar} in Renviron files now
      follows POSIX shells (at least on a Unix-alike), so the first
      treats empty environment variables as set and the second does
      not.  Previously both ignored empty variables.  There are several
      uses of the first form in etc/Renviron.
    * New classes argument for suppressWarnings() and
      suppressMessages() to selectively suppress only warnings or
      messages that inherit from particular classes.  Based on patch
      from Lionel Henry submitted with PR#17619.
    * New function activeBindingFunction() retrieves the function of an
      active binding.
    * New "cairoFT" and "pango" components in the output of
    * New argument symbolfamily in cairo-based graphics devices and new
      function cairoSymbolFont() that can be used to provide the value
      for that argument.
    * Rterm now works also when invoked from MSYS2 terminals.  Line
      editing is possible when command winpty is installed.
    * normalizePath() now resolves symbolic links and normalizes case
      of long names of path elements in case-insensitive folders
    * md5sum() supports UTF-8 file names with characters that cannot be
      translated to the native encoding (PR#17633).
    * Rterm gains a new option --workspace to specify the workspace to
      be restored.  This allows equals to be part of the name when
      opening _via_ Windows file associations (reported by Christian
    * Rterm now accepts ALT+xxx sequences also with NumLock on.  Tilde
      can be pasted with an Italian keyboard (PR#17679).
    * R falls back to copying when junction creation fails during
      package checking (patch from Duncan Murdoch).
    * Make macro F77_VISIBILITY has been removed and replaced by
    * Make macros F77, FCPIFCPLAGS and SHLIB_OPENMP_FCFLAGS have been
      removed and replaced by FC, FPICFLAGS and SHLIB_OPENMP_FFLAGS
      respectively.  (Most make programs will set F77 to the value of
      FC, which is set for package compilation.  But portable code
      should not rely on this.)
    * The deprecated support for specifying C++98 for package
      installation has been removed.
    * R CMD config no longer knows about the unused settings F77 and
      FCPIFCPLAGS, nor CXX98 and similar.
    * Either PCRE2 or PCRE1 >= 8.32 (Nov 2012) is required: the
      deprecated provision for 8.20-8.31 has been removed.
    * Defunct functions mem.limits(), .readRDS(),
      .saveRDS(),..find.package(), and .path.package() from package
      base and allGenerics(), getAccess(), getAllMethods(),
      getClassName(), getClassPackage(), getExtends(), getProperties(),
      getPrototype(), getSubclasses(), getVirtual(), mlistMetaName(),
      removeMethodsObject(), seemsS4Object(), traceOff(), and traceOn()
      from methods have been removed.
    * installChar is now remapped in Rinternals.h to installTrChar, of
      which it has been a wrapper since R 3.6.0.  Neither are part of
      the API, but packages using installChar can replace it if they
      depend on R >= 3.6.2.
    * Header R_ext/Print.h defines R_USE_C99_IN_CXX and hence exposes
      Rvprintf and REvprintf if used with a C++11 (or later) compiler.
    * There are new Fortran subroutines dblepr1, realpr1 and intpr1 to
      print a scalar variable (gfortran 10 enforces the distinction
      between scalars and length-one arrays).  Also labelpr to print
      just a label.
    * R_withCallingErrorHandler is now available for establishing a
      calling handler in C code for conditions inheriting from class
    * User-set DEFS (e.g., in is now used for compiling
      packages (including base packages).
    * There is a new variant option --enable-lto=check for checking
      consistency of BLAS/LAPACK/LINPACK calls - see 'Writing R
    * A C++ compiler default is set only if the C++11 standard is
      supported: it no longer falls back to C++98.
    * PCRE2 is used if available.  To make use of PCRE1 if PCRE2 is
      unavailable, configure with option --with-pcre1.
    * The minimum required version of libcurl is now 7.28.0 (Oct 2012).
    * New make target distcheck checks
    * R can be rebuilt from the tarball created by make dist,
    * the build from the tarball passes make check-all,
    * the build installs and uninstalls,
    * the source files are properly cleaned by make distclean.
    * R --help now mentions the option --no-echo (renamed from --slave)
      and its previously undocumented short form -s.
    * R CMD check now optionally checks configure and cleanup scripts
      for non-Bourne-shell code ('bashisms').
    * R CMD check --as-cran now runs \donttest examples (which are run
      by example()) instead of instructing the tester to do so.  This
      can be temporarily circumvented during development by setting
      environment variable _R_CHECK_DONTTEST_EXAMPLES_ to a false
    * There is the beginnings of support for the recently approved
      C++20 standard, specified analogously to C++14 and C++17.  There
      is currently only limited support for this in compilers, with
      flags such as -std=c++20 and -std=c++2a.  For the time being the
      configure test is of accepting one of these flags and compiling
      C++17 code.
    * formula(x) with length(x) > 1 character vectors, is deprecated
      now.  Such use has been rare, and has 'worked' as expected in
      some cases only.  In other cases, wrong x have silently been
      truncated, not detecting previous errors.
    * Long-standing issue where the X11 device could lose events
      shortly after startup has been addressed (PR#16702).
    * The data.frame method for rbind() no longer drops <NA> levels
      from factor columns by default (PR#17562).
    * available.packages() and hence install.packages() now pass their
      ... argument to download.file(), fulfilling the wish of PR#17532;
      subsequently, available.packages() gets new argument quiet,
      solving PR#17573.
    * stopifnot() gets new argument exprObject to allow an R object of
      class expression (or other 'language') to work more consistently,
      thanks to suggestions by Suharto Anggono.
    * conformMethod() now works correctly in cases containing a "&&
      logic" bug, reported by Henrik Bengtsson.  It now creates methods
      with "missing" entries in the signature.  Consequently,
      rematchDefinition() is amended to use appropriate .local() calls
      with named arguments where needed.
    * format.default(*, scientific = FALSE) now corresponds to a
      practically most extreme options(scipen = n) setting rather than
      arbitrary n = 100.
    * format(as.symbol("foo")) now works (returning "foo").
    * postscript(.., title = *) now signals an error when the title
      string contains a character which would produce corrupt
      PostScript, thanks to PR#17607 by Daisuko Ogawa.
    * Certain Ops (notably comparison such as ==) now also work for
      0-length data frames, after reports by Hilmar Berger.
    * methods(class = class(glm(..))) now warns more usefully and only
    * write.dcf() no longer mangles field names (PR#17589).
    * Primitive replacement functions no longer mutate a referenced
      first argument when used outside of a complex assignment context.
    * A better error message for contour(*, levels = Inf).
    * The return value of contourLines() is no longer invisible().
    * The Fortran code for calculating the coefficients component in
      lm.influence() was very inefficient. It has (for now) been
      replaced with much faster R code (PR#17624).
    * cm.colors(n) _etc_ no longer append the code for alpha = 1, "FF",
      to all colors.  Hence all eight *.colors() functions and
      rainbow() behave consistently and have the same non-explicit
      default (PR#17659).
    * dnorm had a problematic corner case with sd == -Inf or negative
      sd which was not flagged as an error in all cases. Thanks to
      Stephen D. Weigand for reporting and Wang Jiefei for analyzing
      this; similar change has been made in dlnorm().
    * The optional iter.smooth argument of plot.lm(), (the plot()
      method for lm and glm fits) now defaults to 0 for all glm fits.
      Especially for binary observations with high or low fitted
      probabilities, this effectively deleted all observations of 1 or
      0.  Also, the type of residuals used in the glm case has been
      switched to "pearson" since deviance residuals do not in general
      have approximately zero mean.
    * In plot.lm, Cook's distance was computed from unweighted
      residuals, leading to inconsistencies.  Replaced with usual
      weighted version. (PR#16056)
    * Time-series ts(*, start, end, frequency) with fractional
      frequency are supported more consistently; thanks to a report
      from Johann Kleinbub and analysis and patch by Duncan Murdoch in
    * In case of errors mcmapply() now preserves attributes of returned
      "try-error" objects and avoids simplification, overriding
      SIMPLIFY to FALSE. (PR#17653)
    * as.difftime() gets new optional tz = "UTC" argument which should
      fix behaviour during daylight-savings-changeover days, fixing
      PR#16764, thanks to proposals and analysis by Johannes Ranke and
      Kirill M"uller.
    * round() does a better job of rounding _"to nearest"_ by
      _measuring_ and _"to even"_; thanks to a careful algorithm
      originally prompted by the report from Adam Wheeler and then
      others, in PR#17668.
      round(x, dig) for _negative_ digits is much more rational now,
      notably for large |dig|.
    * Inheritance information on S4 classes is maintained more
      consistently, particularly in the case of class unions (in part
      due to PR#17596 and a report from Ezra Tucker).
    * is() behaves more robustly when its argument class2 is a
      classRepresentation object.
    * The warning message when attempting to export an nonexistent
      class is now more readable; thanks to Thierry Onkelinx for
      recognizing the problem.
    * choose() misbehaved in corner cases where it switched n - k for k
      and n was only _nearly_ integer (report from Erik Scott Wright).
    * mle() in the stats4 package had problems combining use of box
      constraints and fixed starting values (in particular, confidence
      intervals were affected).
    * Operator ? now has lower precedence than = to work as documented,
      so = behaves like <- in help expressions (PR#16710).
    * smoothEnds(x) now returns integer type in _both_ cases when x is
      integer, thanks to a report and proposal by Bill Dunlap PR#17693.
    * The methods package does a better job of tracking inheritance
      relationships across packages.
    * norm(diag(c(1, NA)), "2") now works.
    * subset() had problems with 0-col dataframes (reported by Bill
      Dunlap, PR#17721).
    * Several cases of integer overflow detected by the 'undefined
      behaviour sanitizer' of clang 10 have been circumvented.  One in
      rhyper() may change the generated value for large input values.
    * dotchart() now places the y-axis label (ylab) much better, not
      overplotting labels, thanks to a report and suggestion by Alexey
    * A rare C-level array overflow in chull() has been worked around.
    * Some invalid specifications of the day-of-the-year (_via_ %j,
      e.g. day 366 in 2017) or week plus day-of-the-week are now
      detected by strptime().  They now return NA but give a warning as
      they may have given random results or corrupted memory in earlier
      versions of R.
    * socketConnection(server = FALSE) now respects the connection
      timeout also on Linux.
    * socketConnection(server = FALSE) no longer leaks a connection
      that is available right away without waiting (e.g. on localhost).
    * Socket connections are now robust against spurious readability
      and spurious availability of an incoming connection.
    * blocking = FALSE is now respected also on the server side of a
      socket connection, allowing non-blocking read operations.
    * anova.glm() and anova.glmlist() computed incorrect score (Rao)
      tests in no-intercept cases. (Andr'e Gillibert, PR#17734)
    * summaryRprof() now should work correctly for the Rprof(*,
      memory.profiling=TRUE) case with small chunk size (and "tseries"
      or similar) thanks to a patch proposal by Benjamin Tyner, in
    * xgettext() ignores strings passed to ngettext(), since the latter
      is handled by xngettext(). Thanks to Daniele Medri for the report
      and all the recent work he has done on the Italian translations.
    * data(package = "P") for P in base and stats no longer reports the
      data sets from package datasets (which it did for back
      compatibility for 16 years), fixing PR#17730.
    * x[[Inf]] (returning NULL) no longer leads to undefined behavior,
      thanks to a report by Kirill M"uller in PR#17756.  Further,
      x[[-Inf]] and x[[-n]] now give more helpful error messages.
    * Gamma() family sometimes had trouble storing link name PR#15891
    BUG FIXES (Windows):
    * Sys.glob() now supports all characters from the Unicode Basic
      Multilingual Plane, no longer corrupting some (less commonly
      used) characters (PR#17638).
    * Rterm now correctly displays multi-byte-coded characters
      representable in the current native encoding (at least on Windows
      10 they were sometimes omitted, PR#17632).
    * scan() issues with UTF-8 data when running in a DBCS locale have
      been resolved (PR#16520, PR#16584).
    * RTerm now accepts enhanced/arrow keys also with ConPTY.
    * R can can now be started _via_ the launcher icon in a user
      documents directory whose path is not representable in the system
    * socketConnection(server = FALSE) now returns instantly also on
      Windows when connection failure is signalled.
    * Problems with UTF-16 surrogate pairs have been fixed in several
      functions, including tolower() and toupper() (PR#17645).
* Sat Feb 29 2020 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 3.6.3:
    * The included LAPACK has been updated to version 3.9.0 (for the
      included routines, just bug fixes).
    * Fixed a C level integer overflow in rhyper(); reported by
      Benjamin Tyner in PR#17694.
    * Uses of url(gzcon(.)) needing to extend buffer size have failed
      (with HTTP/2 servers), reported by G'abor Cs'ardi.
    * predict(loess(..), se=TRUE) now errors out (instead of
      seg.faulting etc) for large sample sizes, thanks to a report and
      patch by Benjamin Tyner in PR#17121.
    * tools:assertCondition(., "error") and hence assertError() no
      longer return errors twice (invisibly).
    * update(form, new) in the case of a long new formula sometimes
      wrongly eliminated the intercept from form, or (more rarely)
      added a garbage term (or seg.faulted !); the fix happened by
      simplifying the C-level logic of terms.formula().  Reported by
      Mathias Amb"uhl in PR#16326.
    * The error message from stopifnot(.., <error producing call>)
      again contains the full "stopifnot(.......)" call: Its attempted
      suppression did not work consistently.
    * On Windows, download.file(., , "wininet", headers=character())
      would fail; reported with patch proposal by Kevin Ushey in
* Mon Jan 20 2020 Dan Čermák <>
  - Don't mark %{_libdir}/R/doc as %doc:
    This causes issues for rstudio, which requires the directory %{_libdir}/R/doc
    to exist, but the directory is not present if libzypp is configured to omit
* Thu Dec 12 2019 Detlef Steuer <>
  -  CHANGES IN R 3.6.2:
    * runmed(x, *) gains a new option na.action determining _how_ to
      handle NaN or NA in x.
    * dotchart() gains new options ann, xaxt, frame.plot and log.
    * Detection of the C stack direction has been moved from run-time
      to configure: this is safer with LTO builds and allows the
      detection to be overridden - see file
    * Source-code changes enable installation on platforms using gcc
    - fno-common (the expected default for gcc 10.x).
    * installTrChar (which is nowadays is wrapped by installChar) is
      defined in Rinternals.h.  (Neither are part of the API.)
    * Header Rconfig.h contains the value of FC_LEN_T deduced at
      installation which is used by the prototypes in headers
      R_ext/BLAS.h and R_ext/Lapack.h but to avoid extensive breakage
      this is only exposed when USE_FC_LEN_T is defined.
      If a package's C/C++ calls to BLAS/LAPACK allow for the 'hidden'
      arguments used by most Fortran compilers to pass the lengths of
      Fortran character arguments, define USE_FC_LEN_T and include
      Rconfig.h (possibly _via_ R.h) before including R_ext/BLAS.h or
    * A package with Fortran source code and perhaps C (but not C++)
      sources can request for its shared object/DLL to be linked by the
      Fortran compiler by including a line USE_FC_TO_LINK= in
      src/Makevars[.win] and using $(SHLIB_OPENMP_FFLAGS) as part of
      The known reason for doing so is a package which uses Fortran
      (only) OpenMP on a platform where the Fortran OpenMP runtime is
      incompatible with the C one (e.g. gfortran 9.x with clang).
    * R CMD check has a new option to mitigate checks leaving
      files/directories in /tmp.  See the 'R Internals' manual - this
      is part of --as-cran.
    * The default standard for C++ in package installation is C++11 (as
      it has been on other platforms where available since R 3.6.0: the
      default toolchain on Windows was defaulting to C++98).
    * Support for specifying C++98 in package installation is
    * Support in R CMD config for F77, FCPIFCPLAGS, CPP, CXXCPP and
      CXX98 and similar is deprecated.  (CPP is found from the system
      make and may well not be set.)
      Use $CC -E and $CXX -E instead of CPP and CXXCPP.
    * runmed(x, *) when x contains missing values now works
      consistently for both algorithm="Stuetzle" and "Turlach", and no
      longer segfaults for "Turlach", as reported by Hilmar Berger.
    * apply(diag(3), 2:3, mean) now gives a helpful error message.
    * dgamma(x, shape, log=TRUE) now longer overflows to Inf for shape
      < 1 and very small x, fixing PR#17577, reported by Jonathan
    * Buffer overflow in building error messages fixed. Reported by
      Benjamin Tremblay.
    * options(str = .) is correctly initialized at package utils load
      time, now.  A consequence is that str() in scripts now is more
      consistent to interactive use, e.g., when displaying function(**)
      argument lists.
    * as.numeric(<call>) now gives correct error message.
    * Printing ls.str() no longer wrongly shows "<missing>" in rare
    * Auto-printing S4 objects no longer duplicates the object, for
      faster speed and reduced memory consumption. Reported by Aaron
    * pchisq(<LRG>, <LRG>, ncp=100) no longer takes practically forever
      in some cases.  Hence ditto for corresponding qchisq() calls.
    * x %% L for finite x no longer returns NaN when L is infinite, nor
      suffers from cancellation for large finite L, thanks to Long Qu's
      Analogously, x %/% L and L %/% x suffer less from cancellation
      and return values corresponding to limits for large L.
    * grepl(NA, *) now returns logical as documented.
    * options(warn=1e11) is an error now, instead of later leading to C
      stack overflow because of infinite recursion.
    * R_tryCatch no longer transfers control for all conditions.
      Reported and patch provided by Lionel Henry in PR#17617.
    * format(object.size(.), digits=NULL) now works, fixing PR#17628
      reported by Jonathan Carroll.
    * get_all_vars(f, d) now also works for cases, e.g. where d
      contains a matrix.  Reported by Simon Wood in 2009 and patch
      provided by Ben Bolker in PR#13624.
      Additionally, it now also works when some variables are data
      frames, fixing PR#14905, reported by Patrick Breheny.
    * barplot() could get spacings wrong if there were exactly two bars
      PR#15522.  Patch by Michael Chirico.
    * power.t.test() works in more cases when returning values of n
      smaller than 2.
    * dotchart(*, pch=., groups=.) now works better.  Reported by
      Robert and confirmed by Nic Rochette in PR#16953.
    * canCoerce(obj, cl) no longer assumes length(class(obj)) == 1.
    * plot.formula(*, subset = *) now also works in a boundary case
      reported by Robert Schlicht (TU Dresden).
    * readBin() and writeBin() of a rawConnection() now also work in
      large cases, thanks to a report and proposal by Taeke Harkema in
* Thu Oct 17 2019 Richard Brown <>
  - Remove obsolete Groups tag (fate#326485)
* Fri Aug 30 2019 John Vandenberg <>
  - Use %license
* Sun Aug 11 2019 John Vandenberg <>
  - Fix Summary of R-core and R-core-devel
* Fri Jul 05 2019 Detlef Steuer <>
  - CHANGES IN R 3.6.1:
    * The default detection of the shell variable libNN is overridden
      for derivatives of Debian Linux, some of which have started to
      have a /usr/lib64 directory.  (E.g. Ubuntu 19.04.)  As before, it
      can be specified in
    * R CMD config knows the values of AR and RANLIB, often set for LTO
    * The use of a character vector with .Fortran() is formally
      deprecated and gives a non-portability warning.  (It has long
      been strongly discouraged in 'Writing R Extensions'.)
    * On Windows, GUI package installation via menuInstallPkgs() works
      again, thanks to Len Weil's and Duncan Murdoch's PR#17556.
    * R CMD check on data() fixing PR#17558 thanks to Duncan Murdoch.
    * quasi(*, variance = list(..)) now works more efficiently, and
      should work in all cases fixing PR#17560.  Further, quasi(var =
      mu(1-mu)) and quasi(var = "mu ^ 3") now work, and quasi(variance
      = "log(mu)") now gives a correct error message.
    * Creation of lazy loading database during package installation is
      again robust to Rprofile changing the current working directory
    * boxplot(y ~ f, horizontal=TRUE) now produces correct x- and
    * allows to keep <NA> levels from factor columns
      (PR#17562) via new option factor.exclude.
      Additionally, it works in one more case with matrix-columns which
      had been reported on 2017-01-16 by Krzysztof Banas.
    * Correct messaging in C++ pragma checks in tools code for R CMD
      check, fixing PR#17566 thanks to Xavier Robin.
    * print()ing and auto-printing no longer differs for functions with
      a user defined print.function, thanks to Bill Dunlap's report.
    * On Windows, writeClipboard(.., format = <n>) now does correctly
      pass format to the underlying C code, thanks to a bug report
      (with patch) by Jenny Bryan.
    * treats 1D arrays the same as vectors, PR#17570.
    * Improvements in smoothEnds(x, *) working with NAs (towards
      runmed() working in that case, in the next version of R).
    * vcov(glm(<quasi>), dispersion = *) works correctly again, fixing
      PR#17571 thanks to Pavel Krivitsky.
    * R CMD INSTALL of binary packages on Windows now works also with
      per-directory locking.
    * R CMD INSTALL and install.packages() on Windows are now more
      robust against a locked file in an earlier installation of the
      package to be installed.  The default value of option
      install.lock on Windows has been changed to TRUE.
    * On Unix alikes (when readline is active), only expand tilde (~)
      file names starting with a tilde, instead of almost all tildes.
    * In R documentation (*.Rd) files, \item [..] is no longer treated
      specially when rendered in LaTeX and hence pdf, but rather shows
      the brackets in all cases.
* Fri Apr 26 2019 Detlef Steuer <>
  -  CHANGES IN R 3.6.0:
    * Serialization format version 3 becomes the default for
      serialization and saving of the workspace (save(), serialize(),
      saveRDS(), compiler::cmpfile()).  Serialized data in format 3
      cannot be read by versions of R prior to version 3.5.0.
      Serialization format version 2 is still supported and can be
      selected by version = 2 in the save/serialization functions.  The
      default can be changed back for the whole R session by setting
      environment variables R_DEFAULT_SAVE_VERSION and
      R_DEFAULT_SERIALIZE_VERSION to 2.  For maximal
      back-compatibility, files vignette.rds and partial.rdb generated
      by R CMD build are in serialization format version 2, and resave
      by default produces files in serialization format version 2
      (unless the original is already in format version 3).
    * The default method for generating from a discrete uniform
      distribution (used in sample(), for instance) has been changed.
      This addresses the fact, pointed out by Ottoboni and Stark, that
      the previous method made sample() noticeably non-uniform on large
      populations.  See PR#17494 for a discussion.  The previous method
      can be requested using RNGkind() or RNGversion() if necessary for
      reproduction of old results.  Thanks to Duncan Murdoch for
      contributing the patch and Gabe Becker for further assistance.
      The output of RNGkind() has been changed to also return the
      'kind' used by sample().
    * Sys.setFileTime() has been vectorized so arguments path and time
      of length greater than one are now supported.
    * axis() gets new option gap.axis = NA for specifying a
      multiplication factor for the minimal "gap" (distance) between
      axis labels drawn.  Its default is 1 for labels _parallel_ to the
      axis, and 0.25 for perpendicular ones.
      Perpendicular labels no longer overlap, fixing bug PR#17384.
    * The default method of plot() gains new arguments xgap.axis = NA
      and ygap.axis = NA to be passed to the x- and y- axis(..,
      gap.axis=*) calls.
    * removeSource() now works not only for functions but also for some
      language objects.
    *,, rep_len() and nchar() dispatch internally.
    * is(object, class2) looks for class2 in the calling namespace
      after looking in the namespace of class(object).
    * extendrange(.., f) with a length-2 f now extends separately to
      the left and the right.
    * lengths() dispatches internally to S4 methods.
    * download.file() on Windows now uses URLdecode() to determine the
      file extension, and uses binary transfer (mode = "wb") also for
      file extension .rds.
      The help page for download.file() now contains the same
      information on all platforms.
    * Setting C locale for collation _via_ environment variables LC_ALL
      and LC_COLLATE and _via_ a call to Sys.setlocale() now takes
      precedence over environment variable R_ICU_LOCALE.
    * There is a new function, nullfile(), to give the file name of the
      null system device (e.g., /dev/null) on the current platform.
    * There are two new options, and, which control whether parse data are
      included into sources when keep.source or keep.source.pkgs is
      TRUE.  By default, is now FALSE, which
      changes previous behavior and significantly reduces space and
      time overhead when sources are kept when installing packages.
    * In rapply(x, ..), x can also be "list-like" and of length >=
    * trimws() gets new optional whitespace argument, allowing more
      extensive definitions of "space", such as including Unicode
      spaces (as wished in PR#17431).
    * weighted.mean() no longer coerces the weights to a double/numeric
      vector, since sum() now handles integer overflow. This makes
      weighted.mean() more polymorphic and endomorphic, but be aware
      that the results are no longer guaranteed to be a vector of type
    * When loading namespaces, S3 method registrations which overwrite
      previous registrations are now noted by default (using
    * compiler::cmpfile() gains a version argument, for use when the
      output file should be saved in serialization format 2.
    * The axis labeling in the default method of pairs() may now be
      toggled by new options horOdd and verOdd.
    * (Not Windows nor macOS.) Package tcltk now supports an
      environment variable R_DONT_USE_TK which if set disables Tk
      initialization.  This is intended for use to circumvent errors in
      loading the package, e.g. with recent Linux running under an
      address sanitizer.
    * The numeric method of all.equal() gets optional arguments countEQ
      and formatFUN.  If countEQ is true, the mean error is more
      sensible when many entries are *eq*ual.
    * outer(x,y, FUN = "*") is more efficient using tcrossprod(u,v)
      instead of u %*% t(v).
    * vcov(<mlm>) is more efficient via new optional arguments in
    * The default method of summary() gets an option to choose the
      _kind_ of quantile()s to use; wish of PR#17438.
    * Fitting multiple linear models _via_ lm() does work with _matrix_
      offsets, as suggested in PR#17407.
    * The new functions mem.maxVSize() and mem.maxMSize() allow the
      maximal size of the vector heap and the maximal number of nodes
      allowed in the current R process to be queried and set.
    * news() gains support for files.
    * An effort has been started to have our reference manuals, i.e.,
      all help pages. show platform-independent information (rather
      than Windows or Unix-alike specifics visible only on that
      platform).  Consequently, the Windows version of X11() / x11()
      got identical formal arguments to the Unix one.
    * sessionInfo()$running has been factored out in a new variable
    * slice.index() now also works for multi-dimensional margins.
    * untar() used with an external tar command assumes this supports
      decompression including xz and automagically detecting the
      compression type.  This has been true of all mainstream
      implementations since 2009 (for GNU tar, since version 1.22):
      older implementations are still supported _via_ the new argument
      support_old_tars whose default is controlled by environment
      variable R_SUPPORT_OLD_TARS.  (It looks like NetBSD and OpenBSD
      have 'older' tar commands for this purpose.)
    * The new function asplit() allow splitting an array or matrix by
      its margins.
    * New functions errorCondition() and warningCondition() provide a
      convenient way to create structured error and warning objects.
      .Deprecated() now signals a warning of class "deprecatedWarning",
      and .Defunct() now signals an error of class "defunctError".
    * Many 'package not found' errors are now signaled as errors of
      class "packageNotFoundError".
    * As an experimental feature, when loadNamespace() fails because
      the requested package is not available the error is initially
      signaled with a retry_loadNamespace restart available.  This
      allows a calling handler to try to install the package and
    * S3method() directives in NAMESPACE can now also be used to
      perform _delayed_ S3 method registration.
    * Experimentally, setting environment variable
      _R_CHECK_LENGTH_1_LOGIC2_ will lead to warnings (or errors if the
      variable is set to a 'true' value) when && or || encounter and
      use arguments of length more than one.
    * Added "lines" and "chars" coordinate systems to grconvertX() and
    * getOption() is more efficient notably for the rare case when
      called with two arguments, from several contributors in PR#17394.
    * In .col(dim) and .row(dim), dim now may also be an integer-valued
    * sQuote() and dQuote() get an explicit q argument with obvious
      default instead of using getOption("fancyQuotes") implicitly and
    * unzip() can list archives with comments and with spaces in file
      names even using an external unzip command.
    * Command line completion has a new setting rc.settings(dots =
      FALSE) to remove ... from the list of possible function
    * library() no longer checks packages with compiled code match
      R.version$platform.  loadNamespace() never has, and increasingly
      the 'canonical name' does not reflect the important
      characteristics of compiled code.
    * The primitive functions drop() and unclass() now avoid
      duplicating their data for atomic vectors that are large enough,
      by returning ALTREP wrapper objects with adjusted attributes.
      R-level assignments to change attributes will also use wrapper
      objects to avoid duplicating data for larger atomic vectors. R
      functions like structure() and unname() will therefore not
      duplicate data in these settings.  Generic vectors as produced by
      list() are not yet covered by this optimization but may be in due
    * In formals(), envir becomes an optional argument instead of being
    * Instead of signalling an error for an invalid S4 object x, str(x)
      now gives a warning and subsequently still shows most parts of x,
      e.g., when slots are missing.
    * gamma(x) and lgamma(x) no longer warn when correctly returning
      Inf or underflowing to zero.  This helps maximum likelihood and
      similar computations.
    * convertColor() is now vectorized, so a lot faster for converting
      many colours at once.  The new argument vectorized to
      colorConverter() ensures that non-vectorized colour converters
      still work.  (Thanks to Brodie Gaslam.)
    * download.file() and url() get new argument headers for custom
      HTTP headers, e.g., allowing to perform basic http
      authentication, thanks to a patch contributed by G'abor Cs'ardi.
    * File-based connection functions file(), gzfile(), bzfile() and
      xzfile() now signal an error when used on a directory.
    * For approx(), splinefun() _etc_, a new setting ties =
      c("ordered", <fun>) allows skipping the sorting and still treat
    * format(x) gives a more user friendly error message in the case
      where no method is defined.  A minimal method is provided in
      format.default(x) when isS4(x) is true.
    * which(x) now also works when x is a long vector, thanks to
      Suharto Anggono's PR#17201.  *NB*: this may return a double
      result, breaking the previous guarantee of an integer result.
    * seq.default() is more careful to return an integer (as opposed to
      double) result when its arguments are large and/or classed
      objects; see comment #9 of Suharto Anggono's PR#17497.
    * The plot() method for lm and glm fits, plot.lm(), gains a new
      option iter.smooth with a default of 0 for binomial fits, no
      longer down-weighting when smoothing the residuals.
    * zip() passes its list of files _via_ standard input to the
      external command when too long for the command line (on some
    * data() gains an overwrite argument.
    * t.test() now also returns the standard error (in list component
    * model.matrix(*, contrasts.arg = CC) now warns about invalid
    * Performance of substr() and substring() has been improved.
    * stopifnot() has been simplified thanks to Suharto Anggono's
      proposals to become considerably faster for cheap expressions.
    * The default 'user agent' has been changed when accessing http://
      and https:// sites using libcurl.  (A site was found which caused
      libcurl to infinite-loop with the previous default.)
    * sessionInfo() now also contains RNGkind() and prints it when it
      differs from the default; based on a proposal and patch by Gabe
      Becker in PR#17535.  Also, RNGversion(getRversion()) works
    * library() and require() now allow more control over handling
      search path conflicts when packages are attached. The policy is
      controlled by the new conflicts.policy option.
    * barplot() gets a formula method, thanks to a patch proposal by
      Arni Magnusson in PR#17521.
    * pmax() and pmin(x) now also work for long vectors, thanks to
      Suharto Anggono's PR#17533.
    * bxp() now warns when omitting duplicated arguments.
    * New hcl.colors() function to provide wide range of HCL-based
      colour palettes with much better perceptual properties than the
      existing RGB/HSV-based palettes like rainbow().
      Also a new hcl.pals() function to list available palette names
      for hcl.colors().
      Contributed by Achim Zeileis.
    * The default colours for image() and filled.contour() are now
      based on hcl.colors().
    * The palette-generating functions rainbow(), gray.colors(), etc.
      get a new rev argument to facilitate reversing the order of
    * New str2lang() and str2expression() as streamlined versions of
      parse(text=., keep.source=FALSE) allow to abstract typical call
      constructions, e.g., in formula manipulations.  (Somewhat
    * Add update_PACKAGES() for incrementally updating a package
      repository index, instead of rebuilding the index from scratch.
      Thanks to Gabe Becker in PR#17544 for the patch, based on part of
      his switchr package.
    * The options selected for the C++ compiler default to the C++11
      standard if supported, otherwise to the C++98 standard.
    * Visibility macros such as C_VISIBILITY can now be user-set
      (including to empty), e.g. in
    * Macro FCLIBS, which has sometimes been needed on Solaris, has
      been renamed to FCLIBS_XTRA.
    * Macro F77 is always set to the value of FC, so the latter should
      be set to user-select the Fortran compiler for both fixed-form
      and free-form Fortran.  In particular, gfortran is now the first
      choice for F77, not f95.
      Macros FFLAGS and FCFLAGS remain distinct to allow for a compiler
      which needs a flag to select free- or fixed-form Fortran (most
      use the source-file extension to choose: .f is fixed-form and
      .f90 and .f95 are free-form).
      If only one of them is set, its value is used for both.
    * The special-casing of CFLAGS, CXXFLAGS and FFLAGS for Intel
      compilers on Linux has been removed: we do not have recent
      experience but the generic defaults now chosen are the same as
      those previously special-cased for x86_64.
      If necessary, override the defaults on the configure command line
      or in file
    * Long-untested configure support for HP-UX and very old versions
      of Linux has been removed.
    * configure --with-blas (without specifying a value) includes
      OpenBLAS in its search (before ATLAS and a generic BLAS).  This
      follows recent versions of the ax_blas autoconf macro.
    * The configure macro MAKEINFO has been updated to TEXI2ANY.
    * Support for make install-strip has been enhanced.
    * Source package installation is by default 'staged': the package
      is installed into a temporary location under the final library
      directory and moved into place once the installation is complete.
      The benefit is that partially-installed packages are hidden from
      other R sessions.
      The overall default is set by environment variable
      R_INSTALL_STAGED.  R CMD INSTALL has new options --staged-install
      and --no-staged-install, and packages can use the StagedInstall
      field in their DESCRIPTION file to opt out.  (That opt-out is a
      temporary measure which may be withdrawn in future.)
      Staged installation requires either --pkglock or --lock, one of
      which is used by default.
    * The interpretation of source code with extension .f is changing.
      Previously this denoted FORTRAN 77 code, but current compilers no
      longer have a FORTRAN 77 mode and interpret it as 'fixed-form'
      Fortran 90 (or later where supported) code.  Extensions .f90 and
      .f95 continue to indicate 'free-form' Fortran code.
      Legal FORTRAN 77 code is also legal fixed-form Fortran 9x;
      however this change legitimizes the use of later features, in
      particular to replace features marked 'obsolescent' in Fortran 90
      and 'deleted' in Fortran 2018 which gfortran 8.x and later warn
    * Packages containing files in the src directory with extensions
      .f90 or .f95 are now linked using the C or C++ compiler rather
      than the Fortran 9x compiler.  This is consistent with fixed-form
      Fortran code and allows mixing of C++ and free-form Fortran on
      most platforms.
      Consequentially, a package which includes free-form Fortran 9x
      code which uses OpenMP should include SHLIB_OPENMP_CFLAGS (or the
      CXXFLAGS version if they also include C++ code) in PKG_LIBS
      rather than SHLIB_OPENMP_FCFLAGS - fortunately on almost all
      current platforms they are the same flag.
    * Macro PKG_FFLAGS will be used for the compilation of both
      fixed-form and free-form Fortran code unless PKG_FCFLAGS is also
      set (in src/Makevars or src/
    * The make macro F_VISIBILITY is now preferred for both fixed-form
      and free-form Fortran, for use in src/Makevars and similar.
    * R CMD INSTALL gains a new option --strip which (where supported)
      strips installed shared object(s): this can also be achieved by
      setting the environment variable _R_SHLIB_STRIP_ to a true value.
      The new option --strip-lib attempts stripping of static and
      shared libraries installed under lib.
      These are most useful on platforms using GNU binutils (such as
      Linux) and compiling with -g flags.
    * There is more support for installing UTF-8-encoded packages in a
      strict Latin-1 locale (and probably for other Latin locales):
      non-ASCII comments in R code (and NAMESPACE files) are worked
      around better.
    * R CMD check now optionally checks makefiles for correct and
      portable use of the SHLIB_OPENMP_*FLAGS macros.
    * R CMD check now evaluates \Sexpr{} expressions (including those
      in macros) before checking the contents of Rd files and so
      detects issues both in evaluating the expressions and in the
      expanded contents.
    * R CMD check now lists missing packages separated by commas and
      with regular quotes such as to be useful as argument in calling
      install.packages(c(..)); from a suggestion by Marcel Ramos.
    * tools::Rd2latex() now uses UTF-8 as its default output encoding.
    * R CMD check now checks line endings of files with extension .hpp
      and those under inst/include.  The check now includes that a
      non-empty file is terminated with a newline.
      R CMD build will correct line endings in such files.
    * R CMD check now tries re-building all vignettes rather than
      stopping at the first error: whilst doing so it adds 'bookmarks'
      to the log.  By default (see the 'R Internals' manual) it
      re-builds each vignette in a separate process.
      It now checks for duplicated vignette titles (also known as
      'index entries'): they are used as hyperlinks on CRAN package
      pages and so do need to be unique.
    * R CMD check has more comprehensive checks on the data directory
      and the functioning of data() in a package.
    * R CMD check now checks autoconf-generated configure files have
      their corresponding source files, including optionally attempting
      to regenerate them on platforms with autoreconf.
    * R CMD build has a new option --compression to select the
      compression used for the tarball.
    * R CMD build now removes src/*.mod files on all platforms.
    * New pointer protection C functions R_PreserveInMSet and
      R_ReleaseFromMSet have been introduced to replace UNPROTECT_PTR,
      which is not safe to mix with UNPROTECT (and with
      PROTECT_WITH_INDEX). Intended for use in parsers only.
    * NAMEDMAX has been raised to 7 to allow further protection of
      intermediate results from (usually ill-advised) assignments in
      arguments to BUILTIN functions. Properly written package code
      should not be affected.
    * R_unif_index is now considered to be part of the C API.
    * R_GetCurrentEnv() allows C code to retrieve the current
    * Argument compressed of untar() is deprecated - it is only used
      for external tar commands which increasingly for extraction
      auto-detect compression and ignore their zjJ flags.
    * var(f) and hence sd(f) now give an error for factor arguments;
      they gave a deprecation warning since R 3.2.3, PR#16564.
    * Package tools' vignetteDepends() has been deprecated (it called a
      function deprecated since Feb 2016), being partly replaced by
      newly exported vignetteInfo().
    * The f77_f2c script has been removed: it no longer sufficed to
      compile the .f files in R.
    * The deprecated legacy support of make macros such as CXX1X has
      been removed: use the CXX11 forms instead.
    * Make macro F77_VISIBILITY is deprecated in favour of
    * Make macros F77, FCPIFCPLAGS and SHLIB_OPENMP_FCFLAGS are
      deprecated in favour of FC, FPICFLAGS and SHLIB_OPENMP_FFLAGS
    * $.data.frame had become an expensive version of the default
      method, so has been removed. (Thanks to Radford Neal for picking
      this up and to Duncan Murdoch for providing a patch.)
    * replayPlot(r) now also works in the same R session when r has
      been "reproduced" from serialization, typically after saving to
      and reading from an RDS file.
    * substr() and substring() now signal an error when the input is
      invalid UTF-8.
    * file.copy() now works also when its argument to is of length
      greater than one.
    * mantelhaen.test() no longer suffers from integer overflow in
      largish cases, thanks to Ben Bolker's PR#17383.
    * Calling setGeneric("foo") in a package no longer fails when the
      enclosing environment of the implicit generic foo() is
    * untar(file("<some>.tar.gz"), *) now gives a better error message,
      suggesting to use gzfile() instead.
    * Method dispatch uses more relevant environments when looking up
      class definitions.
    * The documentation for identify() incorrectly claimed that the
      indices of identified points were returned in the order that the
      points were selected.  identify() now has a new argument order to
      allow the return value to include the order in which points were
      identified; the documentation has been updated.  Reported by
      Richard Rowe and Samuel Granjeaud.
    * order(...., decreasing=c(TRUE, FALSE)) could fail in some cases.
      Reported from StackOverflow via Karl Nordstr"om.
    * User macros in Rd files now accept empty and multi-line
    * Changes in print.*(), thanks to Lionel Henry's patches in
    * Printing lists, pairlists or attributes containing calls with
      S3 class no longer evaluate those.
    * Printing S4 objects within lists and pairlists dispatches
      with show() rather than print(), as with auto-printing.
    * The indexing tags (names or [[<n>]]) of recursive data
      structures are now printed correctly in complex cases.
    * Arguments supplied to print() are now properly forwarded to
      methods when printing lists, pairlists or attributes
      containing S3 objects.
    * The print parameters are now preserved when printing S3
      objects or deparsing symbols and calls.  Previously, printing
      lists containing S3 objects or expressions would reset these
    * Printing lists, pairlists or attributes containing functions
      now uses srcref attributes if present.
    * Calling install.packages() with a length zero pkgs argument now
      is a no-op (PR#17422).
    * unlist(x) now returns a correct factor when x is a nested list
      with factor leaves, fixing PR#12572 and PR#17419.
    * The documentation help(family) gives more details about the aic
      component, thanks to Ben Bolker's prompting.
    * The documentation for attributes and `attributes<-` now gives x
      as name of the first and main argument which the implementation
      has been requiring, fixing PR#17434.  For consistency, the first
      argument name is also changed from obj to x for
    * strwidth() now uses par("font") as default font face (PR#17352).
    * plot(<table>, log="x") no longer warns about log.
    * The print() method for "htest" objects now formats the test
      statistic and parameter directly and hence no longer rounds to
      units _before_ the decimal point.  Consequently, printing of
      t.test() results with a small number of digits now shows
      non-large df's to the full precision (PR#17444).
    * kruskal.test() and fligner.test() no longer erroneously insist on
      numeric g group arguments (PR#16719).
    * Printing a news db via the browser now does a much better job
    * print.aov() missed column names in the multivariate case due to
      misspelling (reported by Chris Andrews).
    * axis() now creates valid at locations also for small subnormal
      number ranges in log scale plots.
    * format.POSIXlt() now also recycles the zone and gmtoff list
      components to full length when needed, and its internal C code
      detects have_zone in more cases.  In some cases, this changes its
      output to become compatible with format.POSIXct().
    * On Windows, detectCores() in package parallel now detects
      processors in all processor groups, not just the group R is
      running in (impacts particularly systems with more than 64
      logical processors).  Reported by Arunkumar Srinivasan.
    * On Windows, socketSelect() would hang with more than 64 sockets,
      and hence parallel::clusterApplyLB() would hang with more than 64
      workers.  Reported by Arunkumar Srinivasan.
    * as(1L, "double") now does coerce (PR#17457).
    * lm.influence(), influence.measures(), rstudent() etc now work
      (more) correctly for multivariate models ("mlm"), thanks to
      (anonymous) stackoverflow remarks.
    *, *, replace=TRUE) again behaves as documented and
      as in R < 3.0.0, namely identically to, ..).
    * Fixes to convertColor() for chromatic adaptation; thanks to
      Brodie Gaslam PR#17473.
    * Using \Sexpr[stage=install]{..} to create an Rd section no longer
      gives a warning in R CMD check; problem originally posted by
      G'abor Cs'ardi, then reported as PR#17479 with a partial patch by
      Duncan Murdoch.
    * Parse data now include a special node for equal assignment.
    * split.default() no longer relies on [[<-(), so it behaves as
      expected when splitting an object by a factor with the empty
      string as one of its levels.  Thanks to Brad Friedman for the
    * Line numbers in messages about .Rd files are now more reliable,
      thanks to a patch from Duncan Murdoch.
    * In the numeric method for all.equal(), a numeric scale argument
      is now checked to be positive and allowed to be of length > 1.
      (The latter worked originally and with a warning in recent
    * Deferred string conversions now record the OutDec option setting
      when not equal to the default.  Reported by Michael Sannella.
    * When y is numeric and f a factor, plot(y ~ f) nicely uses "y" and
      "f" as y- and x-labels.  The more direct boxplot(y ~ f) now does
      too.  The new argument ann = FALSE may be used to suppress these.
    * Subassignment to no/empty rows of a data frame is more consistent
      and typically a no-op in all cases instead of sometimes an error;
      part of Emil Bode's PR#17483.
    * Calls like formatC(*, zero.print = "< 0.001") no longer give an
      error and are further improved via new optional argument  Reported by David Hugh-Jones.
    * methods::formalArgs("<fn>") now finds the same function as
      formals("<fn>"), fixing Emil Bode's PR#17499.
    * The methods package better handles duplicated class names across
    * The default method of seq() now avoids integer overflow, thanks
      to the report and "cumsum" patch of Suharto Anggono's PR#17497.
    * sub() no longer loses encodings for non-ASCII replacements
    * Fix for rotated raster image on X11 device.  (Partial fix for
      PR#17148; thanks to Mikko Korpela).
    * formula(model.frame(frml, ..)) now returns frml in all cases,
      thanks to Bill Dunlap.  The previous behavior is available as
    * ar.ols() also returns scalar var.pred in univariate case
    * normalizePath() now treats NA path as non-existent and normalizes
      it to NA.  file.access() treats NA file name as non-existent.
      file.edit() and connection functions such as file() now treat NA
      file names as errors.
    * The internal regularize.values() auxiliary of approx(),
      splinefun() etc now warns again when there are ties and the
      caller did not specify ties.  Further, it no longer duplicates x
      and y unnecessarily when x is already sorted (PR#17515).
    * strtoi("", base) now gives NA on all platforms, following its
      documentation.  Reported by Michael Chirico.
    * In the definition of an S4 class, prototype elements are checked
      against the slots of the class, with giving a prototype for an
      undefined slot now being an error.  (Reported by Bill Dunlap.)
    * From setClassUnion(), if environment variable
      _R_METHODS_SHOW_CHECKSUBCLASSES is set to true, the internal
      .checkSubclasses() utility prints debugging info to see where it
      is used.
    * max.col(m) with an m of zero columns now returns integer NA
      (instead of 1).
    * axTicks() no longer returns small "almost zero" numbers (in
      exponential format) instead of zero, fixing Ilario Gelmetti's
    * isSymmetric(matrix(0, dimnames=list("A","b"))) is FALSE again, as
      always documented.
    * The cairo_pdf graphics device (and other Cairo-based devices) now
      clip correctly to the right and bottom border.
      There was an off-by-one-pixel bug, reported by Lee Kelvin.
    * as.roman(3) <= 2:4 and all other comparisons now work, as do
      group "Summary" function calls such as max(as.roman(sample(20)))
      and as.roman(NA).  (Partly reported by Bill Dunlap in PR#17542.)
    * reformulate("x", response = "sin(y)") no longer produces extra
      back quotes, PR#17359, and gains new optional argument env.
    * When reading console input from stdin with re-encoding (R
    - -encoding=enc < input) the code on a Unix-alike now ensures that
      each converted input line is terminated with a newline even if
      re-encoding fails.
    * now produces better strings from logicals,
      thanks to PR#17548 from Gabe Becker.
    * The S4 generic signature of rowSums(), rowMeans(), colSums() and
      colMeans() is restricted to "x".
    * match(x, tab) now works for long _character_ vectors x, thanks to
      PR#17552 by Andreas Kersting.
    * Class unions are unloaded when their namespace is unloaded
      (PR#17531, adapted from a patch by Brodie Gaslam).
    * selectMethod() is robust to ANY-truncation of method signatures
      (thanks to Herve Pages for the report).
* Mon Mar 11 2019 Detlef Steuer <>
  -  CHANGES IN R 3.5.3:
    * Detection of flags for C++98/11/14/17 has been improved: in
      particular if CXX??STD is set, it is tried first with no
      additional flags.
    * New macro F_VISIBILITY as an alternative to F77_VISIBILITY.  This
      will become the preferred form in R 3.6.0.
    * writeLines(readLines(fnam), fnam) now works as expected, thanks
      to Peter Meissner's PR#17528.
    * setClassUnion() no longer warns, but uses message() for now, when
      encountering "non local" subclasses of class members.
    * stopifnot(exprs = T) no longer fails.
* Tue Jan 15 2019 Todd R <>
  - Add architecture-independent package directory.
    Taken from the Fedora version of R.
  - Add RPM macros to ease installation of R packages.
  - Fix building on older versions of openSUSE.
* Wed Dec 19 2018 Detlef Steuer <>
  -  CHANGES IN R 3.5.2:
    * New macro CXX_VISIBILITY analogous to C_VISIBILITY (which several
      packages have been misusing for C++ code) for the default C++
      compiler (but not necessarily one used for non-default C++
      dialects like C++14).
    * The random number generator tests in tests/p-r-random-tests.R no
      longer fail occasionally as they now randomly sample from
      "certified" random seeds.
    * The "glm" method of drop1() miscalculated the score test
      (test="Rao") when the model contained an offset.
    * Linear multiple empty models such as lm(y ~ 0) now have a
      correctly dimensioned empty coefficient matrix; reported by Brett
    * vcov(<empty mlm>) and hence confint() now work (via a consistency
      change in summary.lm()).
    * confint(<multiple lm()>) now works correctly; reported on R-devel
      by Steven Pav.
    * quade.test() now also works correctly when its arguments are not
      yet sorted along groups, fixing PR#15842.
    * Installation on a Unix-alike tries harder to link to the pthread
      library where required (rather than relying on OpenMP to provide
      it: configuring with --disable-openmp was failing on some Linux
    * The data.frame method for print(x) is fast now also for large
      data frames x and got an optional argument max, thanks to
      suggestions by Juan Telleria.
    * hist() no longer integer overflows in very rare cases, fixing
    * untar() ignored a character compressed argument: however many
      external tar programs ignore the flags which should have been set
      and automagically choose the compression type, and if appropriate
      gzip or bzip2 compression would have been chosen from the magic
      header of the tarball.
    * zapsmall(x) now works for more "number-like" objects.
    * The tools-internal function called from R CMD INSTALL now gets a
      warnOption = 1 argument and only sets options(warn = warnOption)
      when that increases the warning level (PR#17453).
    * Analogously, the tools-internal function called from R CMD check
      gets a warnOption = 1 argument and uses the larger of that and
      getOption("warn"), also allowing to be run with increased warning
    * Parse data now have deterministic parent nodes (PR#16041).
    * Calling match() with length one x and POSIXlt table gave a
      segfault (PR#17459).
    * Fork clusters could hang due to a race condition in cluster
      initialization (makeCluster()).
    * nextn(n) now also works for larger n and no longer loops
      infinitely for e.g, n <- 214e7.
    * cooks.distance() and rstandard() now work correctly for multiple
      linear models ("mlm").
    * polym() and corresponding lm() prediction now also work for a
      boundary "vector" case fixing PR#17474, reported by Alexandre
    * With a very large number of variables terms() could segfault
    * cut(rep(0, 7)) now works, thanks to Joey Reid and Benjamin Tyner
    * download.file(*, method = "curl", cacheOK = FALSE) should work
      now on Windows, thanks to Kevin Ushey's patch in PR#17323.
    * duplicated(<dataframe with 'f'>) now works, too, thanks to
      Andreas Kersting's PR#17485; ditto for anyDuplicated().
    * legend(*, cex = 1:2) now works less badly.
    * The print() method for POSIXct and POSIXlt now correctly obeys
      getOption("max.print"), fixing a long-standing typo, and it also
      gets a corresponding optional max argument.
    * Unserialization of raw vectors serialized in ASCII representation
      now works correctly.
    * <data frame>[TRUE, <new>] <- list(c1, c2) now works correctly,
      thanks to Suharto Anggono's PR#15362 and Emil Bode's patch in
    **, by=by, length=n) no longer wrongly "drops fractional
      parts" when by is integer, thanks to Suharto Anggono's report
    * Buffering is disabled for file() connections to non-regular files
      (like sockets), as well as fifo() and pipe() connections.  Fixes
      PR#17470, reported by Chris Culnane.
* Mon Jul 02 2018
  -  CHANGES IN R 3.5.1 :
    * file("stdin") is no longer considered seekable.
    * dput() and dump() are no longer truncating when
      options(deparse.max.lines = *) is set.
    * Calls with an S3 class are no longer evaluated when printed,
      fixing part of PR#17398, thanks to a patch from Lionel Henry.
    * Allow file argument of Rscript to include space even when it is
      first on the command line.
    * callNextMethod() uses the generic from the environment of the
      calling method. Reported by Herv'e Pag`es with well documented
    * Compressed file connections are marked as blocking.
    * optim(*, lower = c(-Inf, -Inf)) no longer warns (and switches the
      method), thanks to a suggestion by John Nash.
    * predict(fm, newdata) is now correct also for models where the
      formula has terms such as splines::ns(..) or stats::poly(..),
      fixing PR#17414, based on a patch from Duncan Murdoch.
    * simulate.lm(glm(*, gaussian(link = <non-default>))) has been
      corrected, fixing PR#17415 thanks to Alex Courtiol.
    * unlist(x) no longer fails in some cases of nested empty lists.
      Reported by Steven Nydick.
    * qr.coef(qr(<all 0, w/ colnames>)) now works.  Reported by Kun
    * The radix sort is robust to vectors with >1 billion elements (but
      long vectors are still unsupported). Thanks to Matt Dowle for the
    * Terminal connections (e.g., stdin) are no longer buffered. Fixes
    * deparse(x), dput(x) and dump() now respect c()'s argument names
      recursive and use.names, e.g., for x <- setNames(0, "recursive"),
      thanks to Suharto Anggono's PR#17427.
    * Unbuffered connections now work with encoding conversion.
      Reported by Stephen Berman.
    * .Renviron on Windows with Rgui is again by default searched for
      in user documents directory when invoked _via_ the launcher icon.
      Reported by Jeroen Ooms.
    * printCoefmat() now also works with explicit right=TRUE.
    * print.noquote() now also works with explicit quote=FALSE.
    * The default method for pairs(.., horInd=*, verInd=*) now gets the
      correct order, thanks to reports by Chris Andrews and Gerrit
      Eichner.  Additionally, when horInd or verInd contain only a
      subset of variables, all the axes are labeled correctly now.
    * agrep("..|..", .., fixed=FALSE) now matches when it should,
      thanks to a reminder by Andreas Kolter.
    * str(ch) now works for more invalid multibyte strings.
* Mon Apr 23 2018
  - CHANGES IN R 3.5.0:
    * All packages are by default byte-compiled on installation.  This
      makes the installed packages larger (usually marginally so) and
      may affect the format of messages and tracebacks (which often
      exclude .Call and similar).
    * factor() now uses order() to sort its levels, rather than
      sort.list().  This allows factor() to support custom vector-like
      objects if methods for the appropriate generics are defined.  It
      has the side effect of making factor() succeed on empty or
      length-one non-atomic vector(-like) types (e.g., "list"), where
      it failed before.
    * diag() gets an optional names argument: this may require updates
      to packages defining S4 methods for it.
    * chooseCRANmirror() and chooseBioCmirror() no longer have a
      useHTTPS argument, not needed now all R builds support https://
    * New summary() method for warnings() with a (somewhat
      experimental) print() method.
    * (methods package.) .self is now automatically registered as a
      global variable when registering a reference class method.
    * tempdir(check = TRUE) recreates the tempdir() directory if it is
      no longer valid (e.g. because some other process has cleaned up
      the /tmp directory).
    * New askYesNo() function and "askYesNo" option to ask the user
      binary response questions in a customizable but consistent way.
      (Suggestion of PR#17242.)
    * New low level utilities ...elt(n) and ...length() for working
      with ... parts inside a function.
    * isTRUE() is more tolerant and now true in
      x <- rlnorm(99)
      isTRUE(median(x) == quantile(x)["50%"])
      New function isFALSE() defined analogously to isTRUE().
    * The default symbol table size has been increased from 4119 to
      49157; this may improve the performance of symbol resolution when
      many packages are loaded.  (Suggested by Jim Hester.)
    * line() gets a new option iter = 1.
    * Reading from connections in text mode is buffered, significantly
      improving the performance of readLines(), as well as scan() and
      read.table(), at least when specifying colClasses.
    * order() is smarter about picking a default sort method when its
      arguments are objects.
    * available.packages() has two new arguments which control if the
      values from the per-session repository cache are used (default
      true, as before) and if so how old cached values can be to be
      used (default one hour).
      These arguments can be passed from install.packages(),
      update.packages() and functions calling that: to enable this
      available.packages(), packageStatus() and download.file() gain a
      ... argument.
    * packageStatus()'s upgrade() method no longer ignores its ...
      argument but passes it to install.packages().
    * installed.packages() gains a ... argument to allow arguments
      (including noCache) to be passed from new.packages(),
      old.packages(), update.packages() and packageStatus().
    * factor(x, levels, labels) now allows duplicated labels (not
      duplicated levels!).  Hence you can map different values of x to
      the same level directly.
    * Attempting to use names<-() on an S4 derivative of a basic type
      no longer emits a warning.
    * The list method of within() gains an option keepAttrs = FALSE for
      some speed-up.
    * system() and system2() now allow the specification of a maximum
      elapsed time ('timeout').
    * debug() supports debugging of methods on any object of S4 class
      "genericFunction", including group generics.
    * Attempting to increase the length of a variable containing NULL
      using length()<- still has no effect on the target variable, but
      now triggers a warning.
    * type.convert() becomes a generic function, with additional
      methods that operate recursively over list and data.frame
      objects. Courtesy of Arni Magnusson (PR#17269).
    * lower.tri(x) and upper.tri(x) only needing dim(x) now work via
      new functions .row() and .col(), so no longer call as.matrix() by
      default in order to work efficiently for all kind of matrix-like
    * print() methods for "xgettext" and "xngettext" now use
      encodeString() which keeps, e.g. "\n", visible.  (Wish of
    * package.skeleton() gains an optional encoding argument.
    * approx(), spline(), splinefun() and approxfun() also work for
      long vectors.
    * deparse() and dump() are more useful for S4 objects, dput() now
      using the same internal C code instead of its previous imperfect
      workaround R code.  S4 objects now typically deparse perfectly,
      i.e., can be recreated identically from deparsed code.
      dput(), deparse() and dump() now print the names() information
      only once, using the more readable (tag = value) syntax, notably
      for list()s, i.e., including data frames.
      These functions gain a new control option "niceNames" (see
      .deparseOpts()), which when set (as by default) also uses the
      (tag = value) syntax for atomic vectors.  On the other hand,
      without deparse options "showAttributes" and "niceNames", names
      are no longer shown also for lists.  as.character(list( c (one =
      1))) now includes the name, as as.character(list(list(one = 1)))
      has always done.
      m:n now also deparses nicely when m > n.
      The "quoteExpressions" option, also part of "all", no longer
      quote()s formulas as that may not re-parse identically.
    * If the option setWidthOnResize is set and TRUE, R run in a
      terminal using a recent readline library will set the width
      option when the terminal is resized.  Suggested by Ralf Goertz.
    * If multiple on.exit() expressions are set using add = TRUE then
      all expressions will now be run even if one signals an error.
    * mclapply() gets an option affinity.list which allows more
      efficient execution with heterogeneous processors, thanks to
      Helena Kotthaus.
    * The character methods for as.Date() and as.POSIXlt() are more
      flexible _via_ new arguments tryFormats and optional: see their
      help pages.
    * on.exit() gains an optional argument after with default TRUE.
      Using after = FALSE with add = TRUE adds an exit expression
      before any existing ones. This way the expressions are run in a
      first-in last-out fashion. (From Lionel Henry.)
    * On Windows, file.rename() internally retries the operation in
      case of error to attempt to recover from possible anti-virus
    * Command line completion on :: now also includes lazy-loaded data.
    * If the TZ environment variable is set when date-time functions
      are first used, it is recorded as the session default and so will
      be used rather than the default deduced from the OS if TZ is
      subsequently unset.
    * There is now a [ method for class "DLLInfoList".
    * glm() and get the same singular.ok = TRUE argument that
      lm() has had forever.  As a consequence, in glm(*, method =
      <your_own>), user specified methods need to accept a singular.ok
      argument as well.
    * aspell() gains a filter for Markdown (.md and .Rmd) files.
    * intToUtf8(multiple = FALSE) gains an argument to allow surrogate
      pairs to be interpreted.
    * The maximum number of DLLs that can be loaded into R e.g. _via_
      dyn.load() has been increased up to 614 when the OS limit on the
      number of open files allows.
    * Sys.timezone() on a Unix-alike caches the value at first use in a
      session: _inter alia_ this means that setting TZ later in the
      session affects only the _current_ time zone and not the _system_
      Sys.timezone() is now used to find the system timezone to pass to
      the code used when R is configured with --with-internal-tzcode.
    * When tar() is used with an external command which is detected to
      be GNU tar or libarchive tar (aka bsdtar), a different
      command-line is generated to circumvent line-length limits in the
    * system(*, intern = FALSE), system2() (when not capturing output),
      file.edit() and now issue a warning when the external
      command cannot be executed.
    * The "default" ("lm" etc) methods of vcov() have gained new
      optional argument complete = TRUE which makes the vcov() methods
      more consistent with the coef() methods in the case of singular
      designs.  The former (back-compatible) behavior is given by
      vcov(*, complete = FALSE).
    * coef() methods (for lm etc) also gain a complete = TRUE optional
      argument for consistency with vcov().
      For "aov", both coef() and vcov() methods remain back-compatibly
      consistent, using the _other_ default, complete = FALSE.
    * attach(*, pos = 1) is now an error instead of a warning.
    * New function getDefaultCluster() in package parallel to get the
      default cluster set via setDefaultCluster().
    * str(x) for atomic objects x now treats both cases of is.vector(x)
      similarly, and hence much less often prints "atomic".  This is a
      slight non-back-compatible change producing typically both more
      informative and shorter output.
    * write.dcf() gets optional argument useBytes.
    * New, partly experimental packageDate() which tries to get a valid
      "Date" object from a package DESCRIPTION file, thanks to
      suggestions in PR#17324.
    * tools::resaveRdaFiles() gains a version argument, for use when
      packages should remain compatible with earlier versions of R.
    * ar.yw(x) and hence by default ar(x) now work when x has NAs,
      mostly thanks to a patch by Pavel Krivitsky in PR#17366.  The
      ar.yw.default()'s AIC computations have become more efficient by
      using determinant().
    * New warnErrList() utility (from package nlme, improved).
    * By default the (arbitrary) signs of the loadings from princomp()
      are chosen so the first element is non-negative.
    * If --default-packages is not used, then Rscript now checks the
      environment variable R_SCRIPT_DEFAULT_PACKAGES. If this is set,
      then it takes precedence over R_DEFAULT_PACKAGES. If default
      packages are not specified on the command line or by one of these
      environment variables, then Rscript now uses the same default
      packages as R. For now, the previous behavior of not including
      methods can be restored by setting the environment variable
      R_SCRIPT_LEGACY to yes.
    * When a package is found more than once, the warning from
      find.package(*, verbose=TRUE) lists all library locations.
    * POSIXt objects can now also be rounded or truncated to month or
    * stopifnot() can be used alternatively via new argument exprs
      which is nicer and useful when testing several expressions in one
    * The environment variable R_MAX_VSIZE can now be used to specify
      the maximal vector heap size. On macOS, unless specified by this
      environment variable, the maximal vector heap size is set to the
      maximum of 16GB and the available physical memory. This is to
      avoid having the R process killed when macOS over-commits memory.
    * sum(x) and sum(x1,x2,..,x<N>) with many or long logical or
      integer vectors no longer overflows (and returns NA with a
      warning), but returns double numbers in such cases.
    * Single components of "POSIXlt" objects can now be extracted and
      replaced via [ indexing with 2 indices.
    * S3 method lookup now searches the namespace registry after the
      top level environment of the calling environment.
    * Arithmetic sequences created by 1:n, seq_along, and the like now
      use compact internal representations via the ALTREP framework.
      Coercing integer and numeric vectors to character also now uses
      the ALTREP framework to defer the actual conversion until first
    * Finalizers are now run with interrupts suspended.
    * merge() gains new option no.dups and by default suffixes the
      second of two duplicated column names, thanks to a proposal by
      Scott Ritchie (and Gabe Becker).
    * scale.default(x, center, scale) now also allows center or scale
      to be "numeric-alike", i.e., such that as.numeric(.) coerces them
      correctly.  This also eliminates a wrong error message in such
    * par*apply and par*applyLB gain an optional argument chunk.size
      which allows to specify the granularity of scheduling.
    * Some methods, notably the matrix one, are now
      more careful in not accepting duplicated or NA row names, and by
      default produce unique non-NA row names.  This is based on new
      function .rowNamesDF(x, make.names = *) <- rNms where the logical
      argument make.names allows to specify _how_ invalid row names
      rNms are handled.  .rowNamesDF() is a "workaround" compatible
    * R has new serialization format (version 3) which supports custom
      serialization of ALTREP framework objects.  These objects can
      still be serialized in format 2, but less efficiently.
      Serialization format 3 also records the current native encoding
      of unflagged strings and converts them when de-serialized in R
      running under different native encoding.  Format 3 comes with new
      serialization magic numbers (RDA3, RDB3, RDX3).  Format 3 can be
      selected by version = 3 in save(), serialize() and saveRDS(), but
      format 2 remains the default for all serialization and saving of
      the workspace.  Serialized data in format 3 cannot be read by
      versions of R prior to version 3.5.0.
    * The "Date" and "date-time" classes "POSIXlt" and "POSIXct" now
      have a working `length<-` method, as wished in PR#17387.
    * optim(*, control = list(warn.1d.NelderMead = FALSE)) allows to
      turn off the warning when applying the default "Nelder-Mead"
      method to 1-dimensional problems.
    * matplot(.., panel.first = .) etc now work, as log becomes
      explicit argument and ... is passed to plot() unevaluated, as
      suggested by Sebastian Meyer in PR#17386.
    * Interrupts can be suspended while evaluating an expression using
      suspendInterrupts.  Subexpression can be evaluated with
      interrupts enabled using allowInterrupts.  These functions can be
      used to make sure cleanup handlers cannot be interrupted.
    * R 3.5.0 includes a framework that allows packages to provide
      alternate representations of basic R objects (ALTREP).  The
      framework is still experimental and may undergo changes in future
      R releases as more experience is gained. For now, documentation
      is provided in <URL:>.
    * install.packages() for source packages now has the possibility to
      set a 'timeout' (elapsed-time limit).  For serial installs this
      uses the timeout argument of system2(): for parallel installs it
      requires the timeout utility command from GNU coreutils.
    * It is now possible to set 'timeouts' (elapsed-time limits) for
      most parts of R CMD check _via_ environment variables documented
      in the 'R Internals' manual.
    * The 'BioC extra' repository which was dropped from Bioconductor
      3.6 and later has been removed from setRepositories().  This
      changes the mapping for 6-8 used by setRepositories(ind=).
    * R CMD check now also applies the settings of environment
      the re-building of vignettes.
    * R CMD check with environment variable _R_CHECK_DEPENDS_ONLY_ set
      to a true value makes test-suite-management packages available
      and (for the time being) works around a common omission of
      rmarkdown from the VignetteBuilder field.
    * Support for a system Java on macOS has been removed - install a
      fairly recent Oracle Java (see 'R Installation and
      Administration' SSC.3.2).
    * configure works harder to set additional flags in SAFE_FFLAGS
      only where necessary, and to use flags which have little or no
      effect on performance.
      In rare circumstances it may be necessary to override the setting
      of SAFE_FFLAGS.
    * C99 functions expm1, hypot, log1p and nearbyint are now required.
    * configure sets a -std flag for the C++ compiler for all supported
      C++ standards (e.g., -std=gnu++11 for the C++11 compiler).
      Previously this was not done in a few cases where the default
      standard passed the tests made (e.g. clang 6.0.0 for C++11).
    * 'Writing R Extensions' documents macros MAYBE_REFERENCED,
      MAYBE_SHARED and MARK_NOT_MUTABLE that should be used by package
      C code instead NAMED or SET_NAMED.
    * The object header layout has been changed to support merging the
      ALTREP branch. This requires re-installing packages that use
      compiled code.
    * 'Writing R Extensions' now documents the R_tryCatch,
      R_tryCatchError, and R_UnwindProtect functions.
    * NAMEDMAX has been raised to 3 to allow protection of intermediate
      results from (usually ill-advised) assignments in arguments to
      BUILTIN functions. Package C code using SET_NAMED may need to be
    * Sys.timezone(location = FALSE) is defunct, and is ignored (with a
    * methods:::bind_activation() is defunct now; it typically has been
      unneeded for years.
      The undocumented 'hidden' objects .__H__.cbind and .__H__.rbind
      in package base are deprecated (in favour of cbind and rbind).
    * The declaration of pythag() in Rmath.h has been removed - the
      entry point has not been provided since R 2.14.0.
    * printCoefmat() now also works without column names.
    * The S4 methods on Ops() for the "structure" class no longer cause
      infinite recursion when the structure is not an S4 object.
    * nlm(f, ..) for the case where f() has a "hessian" attribute now
      computes LL' = H + uI correctly.  (PR#17249).
    * An S4 method that "rematches" to its generic and overrides the
      default value of a generic formal argument to NULL no longer
      drops the argument from its formals.
    * Rscript can now accept more than one argument given on the #!
      line of a script. Previously, one could only pass a single
      argument on the #! line in Linux.
    * Connections are now written correctly with encoding "UTF-16LE".
    * Evaluation of ..0 now signals an error.  When ..1 is used and ...
      is empty, the error message is more appropriate.
    * (Windows mainly.)  Unicode code points which require surrogate
      pairs in UTF-16 are now handled.  All systems should properly
      handle surrogate pairs, even those systems that do not need to
      make use of them.  (PR#16098)
    * stopifnot(e, e2, ...) now evaluates the expressions sequentially
      and in case of an error or warning shows the relevant expression
      instead of the full stopifnot(..)  call.
    * path.expand() on Windows now accepts paths specified as
      UTF-8-encoded character strings even if not representable in the
      current locale.  (PR#17120)
    * line(x, y) now correctly computes the medians of the left and
      right group's x-values and in all cases reproduces straight
    * Extending S4 classes with slots corresponding to special
      attributes like dim and dimnames now works.
    * Fix for legend() when fill has multiple values the first of which
      is NA (all colours used to default to par(fg)).  (PR#17288)
    * installed.packages() did not remove the cached value for a
      library tree that had been emptied (but would not use the old
      value, just waste time checking it).
    * The documentation for installed.packages(noCache = TRUE)
      incorrectly claimed it would refresh the cache.
    * aggregate(<data.frame>) no longer uses spurious names in some
      cases.  (PR#17283)
    * object.size() now also works for long vectors.
    * packageDescription() tries harder to solve re-encoding issues,
      notably seen in some Windows locales.  This fixes the citation()
      issue in PR#17291.
    * poly(<matrix>, 3) now works, thanks to prompting by Marc
    * readLines() no longer segfaults on very large files with embedded
      '\0' (aka 'nul') characters.  (PR#17311)
    * ns() (package splines) now also works for a single observation.
      interpSpline() gives a more friendly error message when the
      number of points is less than four.
    * dist(x, method = "canberra") now uses the correct definition; the
      result may only differ when x contains values of differing signs,
      e.g. not for 0-1 data.
    * methods:::cbind() and methods:::rbind() avoid deep recursion,
      thanks to Suharto Anggono via PR#17300.
    * Arithmetic with zero-column data frames now works more
      consistently; issue raised by Bill Dunlap.
      Arithmetic with data frames gives a data frame for ^ (which
      previously gave a numeric matrix).
    * pretty(x, n) for large n or large diff(range(x)) now works better
      (though it was never meant for large n); internally it uses the
      same rounding fuzz (1e-10) as seq.default() - as it did up to
      2010-02-03 when both were 1e-7.
    * Internal C-level R_check_class_and_super() and hence
      R_check_class_etc() now also consider non-direct super classes
      and hence return a match in more cases.  This e.g., fixes
      behaviour of derived classes in package Matrix.
    * Reverted unintended change in behavior of return calls in on.exit
      expressions introduced by stack unwinding changes in R 3.3.0.
    * Attributes on symbols are now detected and prevented; attempt to
      add an attribute to a symbol results in an error.
    * fisher.test(*, workspace = <n>) now may also increase the
      internal stack size which allows larger problem to be solved,
      fixing PR#1662.
    * The methods package no longer directly copies slots (attributes)
      into a prototype that is of an "abnormal" (reference) type, like
      a symbol.
    * The methods package no longer attempts to call length<-() on NULL
      (during the bootstrap process).
    * The methods package correctly shows methods when there are
      multiple methods with the same signature for the same generic
      (still not fully supported, but at least the user can see them).
    * sys.on.exit() is now always evaluated in the right frame. (From
      Lionel Henry.)
    * seq.POSIXt(*, by = "<n> DSTdays") now should work correctly in
      all cases and is faster.  (PR#17342)
    * .C() when returning a logical vector now always maps values other
      than FALSE and NA to TRUE (as documented).
    * Subassignment with zero length vectors now coerces as documented
      Further, x <- numeric(); x[1] <- character() now signals an error
      'replacement has length zero' (or a translation of that) instead
      of doing nothing.
    * (Package parallel.)  mclapply(), pvec() and mcparallel() (when
      mccollect() is used to collect results) no longer leave zombie
      processes behind.
    * R CMD INSTALL <pkg> now produces the intended error message when,
      e.g., the LazyData field is invalid.
    * as.matrix(dd) now works when the data frame dd contains a column
      which is a data frame or matrix, including a 0-column matrix/d.f.
    * mclapply(X, mc.cores) now follows its documentation and calls
      lapply() in case mc.cores = 1 also in the case mc.preschedule is
      false.  (PR#17373)
    * aggregate(<data.frame>, drop=FALSE) no longer calls the function
      on <empty> parts but sets corresponding results to NA.  (Thanks
      to Suharto Anggono's patches in PR#17280).
    * The duplicated() method for data frames is now based on the list
      method (instead of string coercion).  Consequently unique() is
      better distinguishing data frame rows, fixing PR#17369 and
      PR#17381.  The methods for matrices and arrays are changed
    * Calling names() on an S4 object derived from "environment"
      behaves (by default) like calling names() on an ordinary
    * read.table() with a non-default separator now supports quotes
      following a non-whitespace character, matching the behavior of
    * parLapplyLB and parSapplyLB have been fixed to do load balancing
      (dynamic scheduling).  This also means that results of
      computations depending on random number generators will now
      really be non-reproducible, as documented.
    * Indexing a list using dollar and empty string (l$"") returns
    * Using \usage{ data(<name>, package="<pkg>") } no longer produces
      R CMD check warnings.
    * match.arg() more carefully chooses the environment for
      constructing default choices, fixing PR#17401 as proposed by
      Duncan Murdoch.
    * Deparsing of consecutive ! calls is now consistent with deparsing
      unary - and + calls and creates code that can be reparsed
      exactly; thanks to a patch by Lionel Henry in PR#17397.  (As a
      side effect, this uses fewer parentheses in some other deparsing
      involving ! calls.)
* Wed Mar 28 2018
  - added gcc-c++ build dependency
* Tue Mar 20 2018
  - Setting correctly R_UNZIPCMD
    Corrects this bug:
* Thu Mar 15 2018
  - upstrem updated to 3.4.4
    CHANGES IN R 3.4.4:
    * Sys.timezone() tries more heuristics on Unix-alikes and so is
      more likely to succeed (especially on Linux).  For the slowest
      method, a warning is given recommending that TZ is set to avoid
      the search.
    * The version of LAPACK included in the sources has been updated to
      3.8.0 (for the routines used by R, a very minor bug-fix change).
    * parallel::detectCores(logical = FALSE) is ignored on Linux
      systems, since the information is not available with virtualized
    * configure will use pkg-config to find the flags to link to jpeg
      if available (as it should be for the recently-released jpeg-9c
      and libjpeg-turbo).  (This amends the code added in R 3.3.0 as
      the module name in jpeg-9c is not what that tested for.)
    * Sys.timezone(location = FALSE) (which was a stop-gap measure for
      Windows long ago) is deprecated.  It no longer returns the value
      of environment variable TZ (usually a location).
    * Legacy support of make macros such as CXX1X is formally
      deprecated: use the CXX11 forms instead.
    * power.prop.test() now warns when it cannot solve the problem,
      typically because of impossible constraints. (PR#17345)
    * removeSource() no longer erroneously removes NULL in certain
      cases, thanks to D'enes T'oth.
    * nls(`NO [mol/l]` ~ f(t)) and nls(y ~ a) now work.  (Partly from
    * R CMD build checks for GNU cp rather than assuming Linux has it.
      (PR#17370 says 'Alpine Linux' does not.)
    * Non-UTF-8 multibyte character handling fixed more permanently
    * sum(<large ints>, <stuff>) is more consistent.  (PR#17372)
    * rf() and rbeta() now also work correctly when ncp is not scalar,
      notably when (partly) NA.  (PR#17375)
    * R CMD INSTALL now correctly sets C++ compiler flags when all
      source files are in sub-directories of src.
* Mon Mar 12 2018
  - Do not buildrequire xorg-x11-devel but individual x libs.
* Thu Nov 30 2017
  - upstream updated to 3.4.3
    CHANGES IN R 3.4.3:
    * A workaround has been added for the changes in location of
      time-zone files in macOS 10.13 'High Sierra' and again in
      10.13.1, so the default time zone is deduced correctly from the
      system setting when R is configured with --with-internal-tzcode
      (the default on macOS).
    * R CMD javareconf has been updated to recognize the use of a Java
      9 SDK on macOS.
    * raw(0) & raw(0) and raw(0) | raw(0) again return raw(0) (rather
      than logical(0)).
    * intToUtf8() converts integers corresponding to surrogate code
      points to NA rather than invalid UTF-8, as well as values larger
      than the current Unicode maximum of 0x10FFFF.  (This aligns with
      the current RFC3629.)
    * Fix calling of methods on S4 generics that dispatch on ... when
      the call contains ....
    * Following Unicode 'Corrigendum 9', the UTF-8 representations of
      U+FFFE and U+FFFF are now regarded as valid by utf8ToInt().
    * range(c(TRUE, NA), finite = TRUE) and similar no longer return
      NA. (Reported by Lukas Stadler.)
    * The self starting function attr(SSlogis, "initial") now also
      works when the y values have exact minimum zero and is slightly
      changed in general, behaving symmetrically in the y range.
    * The printing of named raw vectors is now formatted nicely as for
      other such atomic vectors, thanks to Lukas Stadler.
* Fri Sep 29 2017
  - upstream update to 3.4.2
    CHANGES IN R 3.4.2:
    * Setting the LC_ALL category in Sys.setlocale() invalidates any
      cached locale-specific day/month names and the AM/PM indicator
      for strptime() (as setting LC_TIME has since R 3.1.0).
    * The version of LAPACK included in the sources has been updated to
      3.7.1, a bug-fix release.
    * The default for tools::write_PACKAGES(rds_compress=) has been
      changed to "xz" to match the compression used by CRAN.
    * c() and unlist() are now more efficient in constructing the
      names(.) of their return value, thanks to a proposal by Suharto
      Anggono.  (PR#17284)
    * R CMD check checks for and R CMD build corrects CRLF line endings
      in shell scripts configure and cleanup (even on Windows).
    * The order of selection of OpenMP flags has been changed: Oracle
      Developer Studio 12.5 accepts -fopenmp and -xopenmp but only the
      latter enables OpenMP so it is now tried first.
    * within(List, rm(x1, x2)) works correctly again, including when
      List[["x2"]] is NULL.
    * regexec(pattern, text, *) now applies as.character(.) to its
      first two arguments, as documented.
    * write.table() and related functions, writeLines(), and perhaps
      other functions writing text to connections did not signal errors
      when the writes failed, e.g. due to a disk being full.  Errors
      will now be signalled if detected during the write, warnings if
      detected when the connection is closed.  (PR#17243)
    * rt() assumed the ncp parameter was a scalar.  (PR#17306)
    * menu(choices) with more than 10 choices which easily fit into one
      getOption("width")-line no longer erroneously repeats choices.
    * length()<- on a pairlist succeeds.  (<URL:>)
    * Language objects such as quote(("\n")) or R functions are
      correctly printed again, where R 3.4.1 accidentally duplicated
      the backslashes.
    * Construction of names() for very large objects in c() and
      unlist() now works, thanks to Suharto Anggono's patch proposals
      in PR#17292.
    * Resource leaks (and similar) reported by Steve Grubb fixed.
      (PR#17314, PR#17316, PR#17317, PR#17318, PR#17319, PR#17320)
    * model.matrix(~1, mf) now gets the row names from mf also when
      they differ from 1:nrow(mf), fixing PR#14992 thanks to the
      suggestion by Sebastian Meyer.
    * sigma(fm) now takes the correct denominator degrees of freedom
      for a fitted model with NA coefficients.  (PR#17313)
    * hist(x, "FD") no longer "dies" with a somewhat cryptic error
      message when x has extreme outliers or IQR() zero: nclass.FD(x)
      tries harder to find a robust bin width h in the latter case, and
      hist.default(*, breaks) now checks and corrects a too large
      breaks number.  (PR#17274)
    * callNextMethod() works for ... methods.
    * qr.coef(qd, y) now has correct names also when qd is a complex QR
      or stems from qr(*, LAPACK=TRUE).
    * Setting options(device = *) to an invalid function no longer
      segfaults when plotting is initiated.  (PR#15883)
    * encodeString(<very large string>) no longer segfaults.
    * It is again possible to use configure --enable-maintainer-mode
      without having installed notangle (it was required in R
    * S4 method dispatch on ... calls the method by name instead of
      .Method (for consistency with default dispatch), and only
      attempts to pass non-missing arguments from the generic.
    * readRDS(textConnection(.)) works again.  (PR#17325)
    * (1:n)[-n] no longer segfaults for n <- 2.2e9 (on a platform with
      enough RAM).
    * x <- 1:2; tapply(x, list(x, x), function(x) "")[1,2] now
      correctly returns NA.  (PR#17333)
    * Running of finalizers after explicit GC request moved from the R
      interface do_gc to the C interface R_gc.  This helps with
      reclaiming inaccessible connections.
    * and ??topic matching topics in vignettes with
      multiple file name extensions (e.g., *.md.rsp but not *.Rmd)
      failed with an error when using options(help_type = "html").
    * The X11 device no longer uses the Xlib backing store (PR#16497).
    * array(character(), 1) now gives (a 1D array with) NA as has been
      documented for a long time as in the other cases of zero-length
      array initialization and also compatibly with matrix(character(),
    * ).  As mentioned there, this also fixes PR#17333.
    * splineDesign(.., derivs = 4) no longer segfaults.
    * fisher.test(*, hybrid=TRUE) now (again) will use the hybrid
      method when Cochran's conditions are met, fixing PR#16654.
* Thu Jul 27 2017
  -  Corrected "bug" "
    R now installs zip and unzip, what in turn eases the installation
    of packages directly from github via devtools.
* Fri Jun 30 2017
  - upstream update to 3.4.1
    CHANGES IN R 3.4.1:
    * The deprecated support for PCRE versions older than 8.20 has been
    * getParseData() gave incorrect column information when code
      contained multi-byte characters.  (PR#17254)
    * Asking for help using expressions like ?stats::cor() did not
      work.  (PR#17250)
    * readRDS(url(....)) now works.
    * R CMD Sweave again returns status = 0 on successful completion.
    * Vignettes listed in .Rbuildignore were not being ignored
      properly.  (PR#17246)
    * file.mtime() no longer returns NA on Windows when the file or
      directory is being used by another process.  This affected
      installed.packages(), which is now protected against this.
    * R CMD INSTALL Windows .zip file obeys --lock and --pkglock flags.
    * (Windows only) The choose.files() function could return incorrect
      results when called with multi = FALSE.  (PR#17270)
    * aggregate(<data.frame>, drop = FALSE) now also works in case of
      near-equal numbers in by.  (PR#16918)
    * fourfoldplot() could encounter integer overflow when calculating
      the odds ratio. (PR#17286)
    * parse() no longer gives spurious warnings when extracting srcrefs
      from a file not encoded in the current locale.
      This was seen from R CMD check with inst/doc/*.R files, and check
      has some additional protection for such files.
    * print.noquote(x) now always returns its argument x (invisibly).
    * Non-UTF-8 multibyte character sets were not handled properly in
      source references.  (PR#16732)
* Fri Apr 21 2017
  - upstream update to 3.4.0
    CHANGES IN R 3.4.0:
    * (Unix-alike) The default methods for download.file() and url()
      now choose "libcurl" except for file:// URLs.  There will be
      small changes in the format and wording of messages, including in
      rare cases if an issue is a warning or an error.  For example,
      when HTTP re-direction occurs, some messages refer to the final
      URL rather than the specified one.
      Those who use proxies should check that their settings are
      compatible (see ?download.file: the most commonly used forms work
      for both "internal" and "libcurl").
    * table() has been amended to be more internally consistent and
      become back compatible to R <= 2.7.2 again.  Consequently,
      table(1:2, exclude = NULL) no longer contains a zero count for
      <NA>, but useNA = "always" continues to do so.
    * summary.default() no longer rounds, but its print method does
      resulting in less extraneous rounding, notably of numbers in the
      ten thousands.
    * factor(x, exclude = L) behaves more rationally when x or L are
      character vectors.  Further, exclude = <factor> now behaves as
      documented for long.
    * Arithmetic, logic (&, |) and comparison (aka 'relational', e.g.,
      <, ==) operations with arrays now behave consistently, notably
      for arrays of length zero.
      Arithmetic between length-1 arrays and longer non-arrays had
      silently dropped the array attributes and recycled.  This now
      gives a warning and will signal an error in the future, as it has
      always for logic and comparison operations in these cases (e.g.,
      compare matrix(1,1) + 2:3 and matrix(1,1) < 2:3).
    * The JIT ('Just In Time') byte-code compiler is now enabled by
      default at its level 3. This means functions will be compiled on
      first or second use and top-level loops will be compiled and then
      run.  (Thanks to Tomas Kalibera for extensive work to make this
      For now, the compiler will not compile code containing explicit
      calls to browser(): this is to support single stepping from the
      browser() call.
      JIT compilation can be disabled for the rest of the session using
      compiler::enableJIT(0) or by setting environment variable
      R_ENABLE_JIT to 0.
    * xtabs() works more consistently with NAs, also in its result no
      longer setting them to 0.  Further, a new logical option addNA
      allows to count NAs where appropriate.  Additionally, for the
      case sparse = TRUE, the result's dimnames are identical to the
      default case's.
    * Matrix products now consistently bypass BLAS when the inputs have
      NaN/Inf values. Performance of the check of inputs has been
      improved. Performance when BLAS is used is improved for
      matrix/vector and vector/matrix multiplication (DGEMV is now used
      instead of DGEMM).
      One can now choose from alternative matrix product
      implementations _via_ options(matprod = ).  The "internal"
      implementation is not optimized for speed but consistent in
      precision with other summations in R (using long double
      accumulators where available).  "blas" calls BLAS directly for
      best speed, but usually with undefined behavior for inputs with
    * factor() now uses order() to sort its levels, not sort.list().
      This makes factor() support custom vector-like objects if methods
      for the appropriate generics are defined. This change has the
      side effect of making factor() succeed on empty or length-one
      non-atomic vector(-like) types (e.g., list), where it failed
    * User errors such as integrate(f, 0:1, 2) are now caught.
    * Add signature argument to debug(), debugonce(), undebug() and
      isdebugged() for more conveniently debugging S3 and S4 methods.
      (Based on a patch by Gabe Becker.)
    * Add utils::debugcall() and utils::undebugcall() for debugging the
      function that would be called by evaluating the given expression.
      When the call is to an S4 generic or standard S3 generic,
      debugcall() debugs the method that would be dispatched. A number
      of internal utilities were added to support this, most notably
      utils::isS3stdGeneric().  (Based on a patch by Gabe Becker.)
    * Add utils::strcapture(). Given a character vector and a regular
      expression containing capture expressions, strcapture() will
      extract the captured tokens into a tabular data structure,
      typically a data.frame.
    * str() and strOptions() get a new option drop.deparse.attr with
      improved but _changed_ default behaviour for expressions.  For
      expression objects x, str(x) now may remove extraneous white
      space and truncate long lines.
    * str(<looooooooong_string>) is no longer very slow; inspired by
      Mikko Korpela's proposal in PR#16527.
    * str(x)'s default method is more "accurate" and hence somewhat
      more generous in displaying character vectors; this will
      occasionally change R outputs (and need changes to some
    * .Rout(.save) files).
      For a classed integer vector such as x <- xtabs(~ c(1,9,9,9)),
      str(x) now shows both the class and "int", instead of only the
    * isSymmetric(m) is much faster for large asymmetric matrices m
      _via_ pre-tests and a new option tol1 (with which strict back
      compatibility is possible but not the default).
    * The result of eigen() now is of class "eigen" in the default case
      when eigenvectors are computed.
    * Zero-length date and date-time objects (of classes "POSIX[cl]?t")
      now print() "recognizably".
    * xy.coords() and xyz.coords() get a new setLab option.
    * The method argument of sort.list(), order() and gains
      an "auto" option (the default) which should behave the same as
      before when method was not supplied.
    * stopifnot(E, ..) now reports differences when E is a call to
      all.equal() and that is not true.
    * boxplot(<formula>, *) gain optional arguments drop, sep, and
      lex.order to pass to split.default() which itself gains an
      argument lex.order to pass to interaction() for more flexibility.
    * The plot() method for ppr() has enhanced default labels (xmin and
    * gains an explicit useHash option (with a back
      compatible default).
    * identical() gains an ignore.srcref option which drops "srcref"
      and similar attributes when true (as by default).
    * diag(x, nrow = n) now preserves typeof(x), also for logical,
      integer and raw x (and as previously for complex and numeric).
    * smooth.spline() now allows direct specification of lambda, gets a
      hatvalues() method and keeps tol in the result, and optionally
      parts of the internal matrix computations.
    * addNA() is faster now, e.g. when applied twice.  (Part of
    * New option rstandard(<lm>, type = "predicted") provides the
      "PRESS"-related leave-one-out cross-validation errors for linear
    * After seven years of deprecation, duplicated factor levels now
      produce a warning when printed and an error in levels<- instead
      of a warning.
    * Invalid factors, e.g., with duplicated levels (invalid but
      constructable) now give a warning when printed, _via_ new
      function .valid.factor().
    * sessionInfo() has been updated for Apple's change in OS naming as
      from '10.12' ('macOS Sierra' _vs_ 'OS X El Capitan').
      Its toLatex() method now includes the running component.
    * options(interrupt=) can be used to specify a default action for
      user interrupts.  For now, if this option is not set and the
      error option is set, then an unhandled user interrupt invokes the
      error option.  (This may be dropped in the future as interrupt
      conditions are not error conditions.)
    * In most cases user interrupt handlers will be called with a
      "resume" restart available.  Handlers can invoke this restart to
      resume computation. At the browser prompt the r command will
      invoke a "resume" restart if one is available. Some read
      operations cannot be resumed properly when interrupted and do not
      provide a "resume" restart.
    * Radix sort is now chosen by method = "auto" for for
      double vectors (and hence used for sort() for unclassed double
      vectors), excluding 'long' vectors. = "radix") no longer rounds double vectors.
    * The default and data.frame methods for stack() preserve the names
      of empty elements in the levels of the ind column of the return
      value.  Set the new drop argument to TRUE for the previous
    * Speedup in simplify2array() and hence sapply() and mapply() (for
      the case of names and common length > 1), thanks to Suharto
      Anggono's PR#17118.
    * table(x, exclude = NULL) now sets useNA = "ifany" (instead of
      "always").  Together with the bug fixes for this case, this
      recovers more consistent behaviour compatible to older versions
      of R.  As a consequence, summary() for a logical vector no longer
      reports (zero) counts for NA when there are no NAs.
    * dump.frames() gets a new option include.GlobalEnv which allows to
      also dump the global environment, thanks to Andreas Kersting's
      proposal in PR#17116.
    * system.time() now uses message() instead of cat() when terminated
      early, such that suppressMessages() has an effect; suggested by
      Ben Bolker.
    * citation() supports inst/CITATION files from package source
      trees, with lib.loc pointing to the directory containing the
    * try() gains a new argument outFile with a default that can be
      modified _via_ options(try.outFile = .), useful notably for
    * The unexported low-level functions in package parallel for
      passing serialized R objects to and from forked children now
      support long vectors on 64-bit platforms.  This removes some
      limits on higher-level functions such as mclapply() (but
      returning gigabyte results from forked processes _via_
      serialization should be avoided if at all possible).
    * Connections now print() without error even if invalid, e.g. after
      having been destroyed.
    * apropos() and find(simple.words = FALSE) no longer match object
      names starting with . which are known to be internal objects
      (such as .__S3MethodsTable__.).
    * Convenience function hasName() has been added; it is intended to
      replace the common idiom !is.null(x$name) without the usually
      unintended partial name matching.
    * strcapture() no longer fixes column names nor coerces strings to
      factors (suggested by Bill Dunlap).
    * strcapture() returns NA for non-matching values in x (suggested
      by Bill Dunlap).
    * source() gets new optional arguments, notably exprs; this is made
      use of in the new utility function withAutoprint().
    * sys.source() gets a new toplevel.env argument.  This argument is
      useful for frameworks running package tests; contributed by Tomas
    * Sys.setFileTime() and file.copy( = TRUE) will set
      timestamps with fractions of seconds on platforms/filesystems
      which support this.
    * (Windows only.) now returns file timestamps including
      fractions of seconds; it has done so on other platforms since R
      2.14.0.  (NB: some filesystems do not record modification and
      access timestamps to sub-second resolution.)
    * The license check enabled by options(checkPackageLicense = TRUE)
      is now done when the package's namespace is first loaded.
    * ppr() and supsmu() get an optional trace argument, and ppr(..,
      sm.method = ..spline) is no longer limited to sample size n <=
    * The POSIXct method for print() gets optional tz and usetz
      arguments, thanks to a report from Jennifer S. Lyon.
    * New function check_packages_in_dir_details() in package tools for
      analyzing package-check log files to obtain check details.
    * Package tools now exports function CRAN_package_db() for
      obtaining information about current packages in the CRAN package
      repository, and several functions for obtaining the check status
      of these packages.
    * The (default) Stangle driver Rtangle allows annotate to be a
      function and gets a new drop.evalFALSE option.
    * The default method for quantile(x, prob) should now be monotone
      in prob, even in border cases, see PR#16672.
    * now tries to extract an email address from a
      BugReports field, and if there is none, from a Contacts field.
    * The format() and print() methods for object.size() results get
      new options standard and digits; notably, standard = "IEC" and
      standard = "SI" allow more standard (but less common)
      abbreviations than the default ones, e.g. for kilobytes.  (From
      contributions by Henrik Bengtsson.)
    * If a reference class has a validity method, validObject will be
      called automatically from the default initialization method for
      reference classes.
    * tapply() gets new option default = NA allowing to change the
      previously hardcoded value.
    * read.dcf() now consistently interprets any 'whitespace' to be
      stripped to include newlines.
    * The maximum number of DLLs that can be loaded into R e.g. _via_
      dyn.load() can now be increased by setting the environment
      variable R_MAX_NUM_DLLS before starting R.
    * Assigning to an element of a vector beyond the current length now
      over-allocates by a small fraction. The new vector is marked
      internally as growable, and the true length of the new vector is
      stored in the truelength field. This makes building up a vector
      result by assigning to the next element beyond the current length
      more efficient, though pre-allocating is still preferred.  The
      implementation is subject to change and not intended to be used
      in packages at this time.
    * Loading the parallel package namespace no longer sets or changes
      the .Random.seed, even if R_PARALLEL_PORT is unset.
      NB: This can break reproducibility of output, and did for a CRAN
    * Methods "wget" and "curl" for download.file() now give an R error
      rather than a non-zero return value when the external command has
      a non-zero status.
    * Encoding name "utf8" is mapped to "UTF-8".  Many implementations
      of iconv accept "utf8", but not GNU libiconv (including the late
      2016 version 1.15).
    * sessionInfo() shows the full paths to the library or executable
      files providing the BLAS/LAPACK implementations currently in use
      (not available on Windows).
    * The binning algorithm used by bandwidth selectors bw.ucv(),
      bw.bcv() and bw.SJ() switches to a version linear in the input
      size n for n > nb/2.  (The calculations are the same, but for
      larger n/nb it is worth doing the binning in advance.)
    * There is a new option PCRE_study which controls when grep(perl =
      TRUE) and friends 'study' the compiled pattern.  Previously this
      was done for 11 or more input strings: it now defaults to 10 or
      more (but most examples need many more for the difference from
      studying to be noticeable).
    * grep(perl = TRUE) and friends can now make use of PCRE's
      Just-In-Time mechanism, for PCRE >= 8.20 on platforms where JIT
      is supported.  It is used by default whenever the pattern is
      studied (see the previous item).  (Based on a patch from Mikko
      This is controlled by a new option PCRE_use_JIT.
      Note that in general this makes little difference to the speed,
      and may take a little longer: its benefits are most evident on
      strings of thousands of characters.  As a side effect it reduces
      the chances of C stack overflow in the PCRE library on very long
      strings (millions of characters, but see next item).
      Warning: segfaults were seen using PCRE with JIT enabled on
      64-bit Sparc builds.
    * There is a new option PCRE_limit_recursion for grep(perl = TRUE)
      and friends to set a recursion limit taking into account R's
      estimate of the remaining C stack space (or 10000 if that is not
      available).  This reduces the chance of C stack overflow, but
      because it is conservative may report a non-match (with a
      warning) in examples that matched before.  By default it is
      enabled if any input string has 1000 or more bytes.  (PR#16757)
    * getGraphicsEvent() now works on X11(type = "cairo") devices.
      Thanks to Frederick Eaton (for reviving an earlier patch).
    * There is a new argument onIdle for getGraphicsEvent(), which
      allows an R function to be run whenever there are no pending
      graphics events.  This is currently only supported on X11
      devices.  Thanks to Frederick Eaton.
    * The deriv() and similar functions now can compute derivatives of
      log1p(), sinpi() and similar one-argument functions, thanks to a
      contribution by Jerry Lewis.
    * median() gains a formal ... argument, so methods with extra
      arguments can be provided.
    * strwrap() reduces indent if it is more than half width rather
      than giving an error.  (Suggested by Bill Dunlap.)
    * When the condition code in if(.) or while(.) is not of length
      one, an error instead of a warning may be triggered by setting an
      environment variable, see the help page.
    * Formatting and printing of bibliography entries (bibentry) is
      more flexible and better documented.  Apart from setting
      options(citation.bibtex.max = 99) you can also use
      print(<citation>, bibtex=TRUE) (or format(..)) to get the BibTeX
      entries in the case of more than one entry.  This also affects
      citation().  Contributions to enable style = "html+bibtex" are
    * Entry points R_MakeExternalPtrFn and R_ExternalPtrFn are now
      declared in header Rinternals.h to facilitate creating and
      retrieving an R external pointer from a C function pointer
      without ISO C warnings about the conversion of function pointers.
    * There was an exception for the native Solaris C++ compiler to the
      dropping (in R 3.3.0) of legacy C++ headers from headers such as
      R.h and Rmath.h - this has now been removed.  That compiler has
      strict C++98 compliance hence does not include extensions in its
      (non-legacy) C++ headers: some packages will need to request
      C++11 or replace non-C++98 calls such as lgamma: see SS1.6.4 of
      'Writing R Extensions'.
      Because it is needed by about 70 CRAN packages, headers R.h and
      Rmath.h still declare
      use namespace std;
      when included on Solaris.
    * When included from C++, the R headers now use forms such as
      std::FILE directly rather than including the line
      using std::FILE;
      C++ code including these headers might be relying on the latter.
    * Headers R_ext/BLAS.h and R_ext/Lapack.h have many improved
      declarations including const for double-precision complex
      routines. _Inter alia_ this avoids warnings when passing 'string
      literal' arguments from C++11 code.
    * Headers for Unix-only facilities R_ext/GetX11Image.h,
      R_ext/QuartzDevice.h and R_ext/eventloop.h are no longer
      installed on Windows.
    * No-longer-installed headers GraphicsBase.h, RGraphics.h,
      Rmodules/RX11.h and Rmodules/Rlapack.h which had a LGPL license
      no longer do so.
    * HAVE_UINTPTR_T is now defined where appropriate by Rconfig.h so
      that it can be included before Rinterface.h when CSTACK_DEFNS is
      defined and a C compiler (not C++) is in use.  Rinterface.h now
      includes C header stdint.h or C++11 header cstdint where needed.
    * Package tools has a new function
      package_native_routine_registration_skeleton() to assist adding
      native-symbol registration to a package.  See its help and SS5.4.1
      of 'Writing R Extensions' for how to use it.  (At the time it was
      added it successfully automated adding registration to over 90%
      of CRAN packages which lacked it.  Many of the failures were
      newly-detected bugs in the packages, e.g. 50 packages called
      entry points with varying numbers of arguments and 65 packages
      called entry points not in the package.)
    * readline headers (and not just the library) are required unless
      configuring with --with-readline=no.
    * configure now adds a compiler switch for C++11 code, even if the
      compiler supports C++11 by default.  (This ensures that g++ 6.x
      uses C++11 mode and not its default mode of C++14 with 'GNU
      The tests for C++11 compliance are now much more comprehensive.
      For gcc < 4.8, the tests from R 3.3.0 are used in order to
      maintain the same behaviour on Linux distributions with long-term
    * An alternative compiler for C++11 is now specified with CXX11,
      not CXX1X. Likewise C++11 flags are specified with CXX11FLAGS and
      the standard (e.g., -std=gnu++11 is specified with CXX11STD.
    * configure now tests for a C++14-compliant compiler by testing
      some basic features.  This by default tries flags for the
      compiler specified by CXX11, but an alternative compiler, options
      and standard can be specified by variables CXX14, CXX14FLAGS and
      CXX14STD (e.g., -std=gnu++14).
    * There is a new macro CXXSTD to help specify the standard for C++
      code, e.g. -std=c++98.  This makes it easier to work with
      compilers which default to a later standard: for example, with
      CXX=g++6 CXXSTD=-std=c++98 configure will select commands for g++
      6.x which conform to C++11 and C++14 where specified but
      otherwise use C++98.
    * Support for the defunct IRIX and OSF/1 OSes and Alpha CPU has
      been removed.
    * configure checks that the compiler specified by $CXX $CXXFLAGS is
      able to compile C++ code.
    * configure checks for the required header sys/select.h (or
      sys/time.h on legacy systems) and system call select and aborts
      if they are not found.
    * If available, the POSIX 2008 system call utimensat will be used
      by Sys.setFileTime() and file.copy( = TRUE).  This may
      result in slightly more accurate file times.  (It is available on
      Linux and FreeBSD but not macOS.)
    * The minimum version requirement for libcurl has been reduced to
      7.22.0, although at least 7.28.0 is preferred and earlier
      versions are little tested.  (This is to support Debian 7
      'Wheezy' LTS and Ubuntu 'Precise' 12.04 LTS, although the latter
      is close to end-of-life.)
    * configure tests for a C++17-compliant compiler.  The tests are
      experimental and subject to change in the future.
    * (Windows only) Tcl/Tk version 8.6.4 is now included in the binary
      builds.  The tcltk*.chm help file is no longer included; please
      consult the online help at <URL:> instead.
    * The version of LAPACK included in the sources has been updated to
      3.7.0: no new routines have been added to R.
    * There is support for compiling C++14 or C++17 code in packages on
      suitable platforms: see 'Writing R Extensions' for how to request
    * The order of flags when LinkingTo other packages has been changed
      so their include directories come earlier, before those specified
      in CPPFLAGS.  This will only have an effect if non-system include
      directories are included with -I flags in CPPFLAGS (and so not
      the default -I/usr/local/include which is treated as a system
      include directory on most platforms).
    * Packages which register native routines for .C or .Fortran need
      to be re-installed for this version (unless installed with
      R-devel SVN revision r72375 or later).
    * Make variables with names containing CXX1X are deprecated in
      favour of those using CXX11, but for the time being are still
      made available _via_ file etc/Makeconf.  Packages using them
      should be converted to the new forms and made dependent on R (>=
* Tue Apr 18 2017
  - And again that ldconfig call. Newline was obviously wrong.
    Hopefully correct now.
* Tue Apr 04 2017
  - Jan Engelhardt <> asked for reverting the change
    to the ldconfig call. So be it.
* Tue Mar 21 2017
  - improvements for
    a) calling /sbin/ldconfig, which no longer gives a warning
    b) unregistering info-pages in %preun instead of %postun
* Tue Mar 07 2017
  - a change in OBS now requires a BuildRequire: shadow for
    some openSUSE releases.
* Mon Mar 06 2017
  - upstream release 3.3.3
  - Most important changes
    CHANGES IN R 3.3.3:
    * Changes when redirection of a http:// URL to a https:// URL is
    * The internal methods of download.file() and url() now report
      that they cannot follow this (rather than failing silently).
    * (Unix-alike) download.file(method = "auto") (the default)
      re-tries with method = "libcurl".
    * (Unix-alike) url(method = "default") with an explicit open
      argument re-tries with method = "libcurl".  This covers many
      of the usages, e.g. readLines() with a URL argument.
    * The configure check for the zlib version is now robust to
      versions longer than 5 characters, including 1.2.11.
    * Environmental variable _R_CHECK_TESTS_NLINES_ controls how R CMD
      check reports failing tests (see SS8 of the 'R Internals' manual).
    * (C-level Native routine registration.)  The undocumented styles
      field of the components of R_CMethodDef and R_FortranMethodDef is
    * vapply(x, *) now works with long vectors x.  (PR#17174)
    * isS3method("") and similar are correct now.
    * grepRaw(<long>, <short>, fixed = TRUE) now works, thanks to a
      patch by Mikko Korpela.  (PR#17132)
    * Package installation into a library where the package exists
      _via_ symbolic link now should work wherever Sys.readlink()
      works, resolving PR#16725.
    * "Cincinnati" was missing an "n" in the precip dataset.
    * Fix buffer overflow vulnerability in pdf() when loading an
      encoding file.  Reported by Talos (TALOS-2016-0227).
    * getDLLRegisteredRoutines() now produces its warning correctly
      when multiple DLLs match, thanks to Matt Dowle's PR#17184.
    * Sys.timezone() now returns non-NA also on platforms such as
      Ubuntu 14.04.5 LTS, thanks to Mikko Korpela's PR#17186.
    * format(x) for an illegal "POSIXlt" object x no longer segfaults.
    * methods(f) now also works for f "(" or "{".
    * (Windows only) dir.create() did not check the length of the path
      to create, and so could overflow a buffer and crash R.
    * On some systems, very small hexadecimal numbers in hex notation
      would underflow to zero.  (PR#17199)
    * pmin() and pmax() now work again for ordered factors and 0-length
      S3 classed objects, thanks to Suharto Anggono's PR#17195 and
    * did not do any validity checking on a package's
      BugReports field.  It now ignores an empty field, removes leading
      whitespace and only attempts to open http:// and https:// URLs,
      falling back to emailing the maintainer.
    * Bandwidth selectors bw.ucv() and bw.SJ() gave incorrect answers
      or incorrectly reported an error (because of integer overflow)
      for inputs longer than 46341.  Similarly for bw.bcv() at length
      Another possible integer overflow is checked and may result in an
      error report (rather than an incorrect result) for much longer
      inputs (millions for a smooth distribution).
    * findMethod() failed if the active signature had expanded beyond
      what a particular package used. (Example with packages XR and
      XRJulia on CRAN.)
    * qbeta() underflowed too early in some very asymmetric cases.
    * R CMD Rd2pdf had problems with packages with non-ASCII titles in
      .Rd files (usually the titles were omitted).
* Mon Oct 31 2016
  - upstream release 3.3.2
  - Most important changes
    CHANGES IN R 3.3.2:
    * extSoftVersion() now reports the version (if any) of the readline
      library in use.
    * The version of LAPACK included in the sources has been updated to
      3.6.1, a bug-fix release including a speedup for the
      non-symmetric case of eigen().
    * Use options(deparse.max.lines=) to limit the number of lines
      recorded in .Traceback and other deparsing activities.
    * format(<AsIs>) looks more regular, also for non-character atomic
    * abbreviate() gains an option named = TRUE.
    * The online documentation for package methods is extensively
      rewritten.  The goals are to simplify documentation for basic
      use, to note old features not recommended and to correct
      out-of-date information.
    * Calls to setMethod() no longer print a message when creating a
      generic function in those cases where that is natural: S3
      generics and primitives.
    * Versions of the readline library >= 6.3 had been changed so that
      terminal window resizes were not signalled to readline: code has
      been added using a explicit signal handler to work around that
      (when R is compiled against readline >= 6.3).  (PR#16604)
    * configure works better with Oracle Developer Studio 12.5.
    * R CMD check reports more dubious flags in files
      src/Makevars[.in], including -w and -g.
    * R CMD check has been set up to filter important warnings from
      recent versions of gfortran with -Wall -pedantic: this now
      reports non-portable GNU extensions such as out-of-order
    * R CMD config works better with paths containing spaces, even
      those of home directories (as reported by Ken Beath).
    * Use of the C/C++ macro NO_C_HEADERS is deprecated (no C headers
      are included by R headers from C++ as from R 3.3.0, so it should
      no longer be needed).
    * The check for non-portable flags in R CMD check could be stymied
      by src/Makevars files which contained targets.
    * (Windows only) When using certain desktop themes in Windows 7 or
      higher, Alt-Tab could cause Rterm to stop accepting input.
      (PR#14406; patch submitted by Jan Gleixner.)
    * pretty(d, ..) behaves better for date-time d (PR#16923).
    * When an S4 class name matches multiple classes in the S4 cache,
      perform a dynamic search in order to obey namespace imports.
      This should eliminate annoying messages about multiple hits in
      the class cache.  Also, pass along the package from the
      ClassExtends object when looking up superclasses in the cache.
    * sample(NA_real_) now works.
    * Packages using non-ASCII encodings in their code did not install
      data properly on systems using different encodings.
    * merge(df1, df2) now also works for data frames with column names
      "na.last", "decreasing", or "method".  (PR#17119)
    * contour() caused a segfault if the labels argument had length
      zero.  (Reported by Bill Dunlap.)
    * unique(warnings()) works more correctly, thanks to a new
      duplicated.warnings() method.
    * findInterval(x, vec = numeric(), all.inside = TRUE) now returns
      0s as documented.  (Reported by Bill Dunlap.)
    * (Windows only) R CMD SHLIB failed when a symbol in the resulting
      library had the same name as a keyword in the .def file.
    * pmax() and pmin() now work with (more ?)  classed objects, such
      as "Matrix" from the Matrix package, as documented for a long
    * axis(side, x = D) and hence Axis() and plot() now work correctly
      for "Date" and time objects D, even when "time goes backward",
      e.g., with decreasing xlim.  (Reported by William May.)
    * str(I(matrix(..))) now looks as always intended.
    * plot.ts(), the plot() method for time series, now respects cex,
      lwd and lty.  (Reported by Greg Werbin.)
    * parallel::mccollect() now returns a named list (as documented)
      when called with wait = FALSE.  (Reported by Michel Lang.)
    * If a package added a class to a class union in another package,
      loading the first package gave erroneous warnings about
      "undefined subclass".
    * c()'s argument use.names is documented now, as belonging to the
      (C internal) default method.  In "parallel", argument recursive
      is also moved from the generic to the default method, such that
      the formal argument list of base generic c() is just (...).
    * rbeta(4, NA) and similarly rgamma() and rnbinom() now return
      NaN's with a warning, as other r<dist>(), and as documented.
    * Using options(checkPackageLicense = TRUE) no longer requires
      acceptance of the licence for non-default standard packages such
      as compiler.  (Reported by Mikko Korpela.)
    * split(<very_long>, *) now works even when the split off parts are
      long. (PR#17139)
    * min() and max() now also work correctly when the argument list
      starts with character(0).  (PR#17160)
    * Subsetting very large matrices (prod(dim(.)) >= 2^31) now works
      thanks to Michael Schubmehl's PR#17158.
    * bartlett.test() used residual sums of squares instead of
      variances, when the argument was a list of lm objects.  (Reported
      by Jens Ledet Jensen).
    * plot(<lm>, which = *) now correctly labels the contour lines for
      the standardized residuals for which = 6.  It also takes the
      correct p in case of singularities (also for which = 5).
    * xtabs(~ exclude) no longer fails from wrong scope, thanks to
      Suharto Anggono's PR#17147.
    * Reference class calls to methods() did not re-analyse previously
      defined methods, meaning that calls to methods defined later
      would fail. (Reported by Charles Tilford).
    * findInterval(x, vec, = TRUE) misbehaved in some cases.
      (Reported by Dmitriy Chernykh.)
* Fri Jul 01 2016
  - Fix typo in Group tag.
* Tue Jun 21 2016
  - upstream release 3.3.1
  - Most important changes
    CHANGES IN R 3.3.1:
    * R CMD INSTALL and hence install.packages() gave an internal error
      installing a package called description from a tarball on a
      case-insensitive file system.
    * match(x, t) (and hence x %in% t) failed when x was of length one,
      and either character and x and t only differed in their Encoding
      or when x and t where complex with NAs or NaNs.  (PR#16885.)
    * unloadNamespace(ns) also works again when ns is a 'namespace', as
      from getNamespace().
    * rgamma(1,Inf) or rgamma(1, 0,0) no longer give NaN but the
      correct limit.
    * length(baseenv()) is correct now.
    * pretty(d, ..) for date-time d rarely failed when "halfmonth" time
      steps were tried (PR#16923) and on 'inaccurate' platforms such as
      32-bit windows or a configuration with --disable-long-double; see
      comment #15 of PR#16761.
    * In text.default(x, y, labels), the rarely(?) used default for
      labels is now correct also for the case of a 2-column matrix x
      and missing y.
    * as.factor(c(a = 1L)) preserves names() again as in R < 3.1.0.
    * strtrim(""[0], 0[0]) now works.
    * Use of Ctrl-C to terminate a reverse incremental search started
      by Ctrl-R in the readline-based Unix terminal interface is now
      supported for readline >= 6.3 (Ctrl-G always worked).  (PR#16603)
    * diff(<difftime>) now keeps the "units" attribute, as subtraction
      already did, PR#16940.
* Wed May 18 2016
  - further cleanup of spec file.
    Removed unneeded explicit Requires for
    Removed removal of backup file that was meanwhile removed upstream.
* Wed May 11 2016
  - clean up of spec file after comments from  Jan Engelhardt in
    Some unneeded explicit BuildRequires removed.
* Tue May 03 2016
  - tre.patch was removed.
* Tue May 03 2016
  - and libbz2-devel needed, too.
* Tue May 03 2016
  - added BuildRequires: bzip2
    for i586.
* Tue May 03 2016
  - upstream release 3.3.0
    CHANGES IN R 3.3.0:
    * nchar(x, *)'s argument keepNA governing how the result for NAs in
      x is determined, gets a new default keepNA = NA which returns NA
      where x is NA, except for type = "width" which still returns 2,
      the formatting / printing width of NA.
    * All builds have support for https: URLs in the default methods
      for download.file(), url() and code making use of them.
      Unfortunately that cannot guarantee that any particular https:
      URL can be accessed.  For example, server and client have to
      successfully negotiate a cryptographic protocol (TLS/SSL, ...)
      and the server's identity has to be verifiable _via_ the
      available certificates.  Different access methods may allow
      different protocols or use private certificate bundles: we
      encountered a https: CRAN mirror which could be accessed by one
      browser but not by another nor by download.file() on the same
      Linux machine.
    * The print method for methods() gains a byclass argument.
    * New functions validEnc() and validUTF8() to give access to the
      validity checks for inputs used by grep() and friends.
    * Experimental new functionality for S3 method checking, notably
      Also, the names of the R 'language elements' are exported as
      character vector tools::langElts.
    * str(x) now displays "Time-Series" also for matrix (multivariate)
      time-series, i.e. when is.ts(x) is true.
    * (Windows only) The GUI menu item to install local packages now
      accepts *.tar.gz files as well as *.zip files (but defaults to
      the latter).
    * New programmeR's utility function chkDots().
    * D() now signals an error when given invalid input, rather than
      silently returning NA.  (Request of John Nash.)
    * formula objects are slightly more "first class": e.g., formula()
      or new("formula", y ~ x) are now valid.  Similarly, for "table",
      "ordered" and "summary.table".  Packages defining S4 classes with
      the above S3/S4 classes as slots should be reinstalled.
    * New function strrep() for repeating the elements of a character
    * rapply() preserves attributes on the list when how = "replace".
    * New S3 generic function sigma() with methods for extracting the
      estimated standard deviation aka "residual standard deviation"
      from a fitted model.
    * news() now displays R and package news files within the HTML help
      system if it is available.  If no news file is found, a visible
      NULL is returned to the console.
    * as.raster(x) now also accepts raw arrays x assuming values in
    * Subscripting of matrix/array objects of type "expression" is now
    * type.convert("i") now returns a factor instead of a complex value
      with zero real part and missing imaginary part.
    * Graphics devices cairo_pdf() and cairo_ps() now allow non-default
      values of the cairographics 'fallback resolution' to be set.
      This now defaults to 300 on all platforms: that is the default
      documented by cairographics, but apparently was not used by all
      system installations.
    * file() gains an explicit method argument rather than implicitly
      using getOption("url.method", "default").
    * Thanks to a patch from Tomas Kalibera, x[x != 0] is now typically
      faster than x[which(x != 0)] (in the case where x has no NAs, the
      two are equivalent).
    * read.table() now always uses the names for a named colClasses
      argument (previously names were only used when colClasses was too
      short). (In part, wish of PR#16478.)
    * (Windows only) download.file() with default method = "auto" and a
      ftps:// URL chooses "libcurl" if that is available.
    * The out-of-the box Bioconductor mirror has been changed to one
      using https://: use chooseBioCmirror() to choose a http:// mirror
      if required.
    * The data frame and formula methods for aggregate() gain a drop
    * available.packages() gains a repos argument.
    * The undocumented switching of methods for url() on https: and
      ftps: URLs is confined to method = "default" (and documented).
    * smoothScatter() gains a ret.selection argument.
    * qr() no longer has a ... argument to pass additional arguments to
    * [ has a method for class "table".
    * It is now possible (again) to replayPlot() a display list
      snapshot that was created by recordPlot() in a different R
      It is still not a good idea to use snapshots as a persistent
      storage format for R plots, but it is now not completely silly to
      use a snapshot as a format for transferring an R plot between two
      R sessions.
      The underlying changes mean that packages providing graphics
      devices (e.g., Cairo, RSvgDevice, cairoDevice, tikzDevice) will
      need to be reinstalled.
      Code for restoring snapshots was contributed by Jeroen Ooms and
      JJ Allaire.
      Some testing code is available at <URL:>.
    * tools::undoc(dir = D) and codoc(dir = D) now also work when D is
      a directory whose normalizePath()ed version does not end in the
      package name, e.g. from a symlink.
    * abbreviate() has more support for multi-byte character sets - it
      no longer removes bytes within characters and knows about Latin
      vowels with accents.  It is still only really suitable for (most)
      European languages, and still warns on non-ASCII input.
      abbreviate(use.classes = FALSE) is now implemented, and that is
      more suitable for non-European languages.
    * match(x, table) is faster (sometimes by an order of magnitude)
      when x is of length one and incomparables is unchanged, thanks to
      Peter Haverty (PR#16491).
    * More consistent, partly not back-compatible behavior of NA and
      NaN coercion to complex numbers, operations less often resulting
      in complex NA (NA_complex_).
    * lengths() considers methods for length and [[ on x, so it should
      work automatically on any objects for which appropriate methods
      on those generics are defined.
    * The logic for selecting the default screen device on OS X has
      been simplified: it is now quartz() if that is available even if
      environment variable DISPLAY has been set by the user.
      The choice can easily be overridden _via_ environment variable
    * On Unix-like platforms which support the getline C library
      function, system(*,intern = TRUE) no longer truncates (output)
      lines longer than 8192 characters, thanks to Karl Millar.
    * rank() gains a ties.method = "last" option, for convenience (and
    * regmatches(invert = NA) can now be used to extract both
      non-matched and matched substrings.
    * data.frame() gains argument fix.empty.names;
      gets new cut.names, col.names and fix.empty.names.
    * plot(x ~ x, *) now warns that it is the same as plot(x ~ 1, *).
    * recordPlot() has new arguments load and attach to allow package
      names to be stored as part of a recorded plot.  replayPlot() has
      new argument reloadPkgs to load/attach any package names that
      were stored as part of a recorded plot.
    * S4 dispatch works within calls to .Internal(). This means
      explicit S4 generics are no longer needed for unlist() and
    * Only font family names starting with "Hershey" (and not "Her" as
      before) are given special treatment by the graphics engine.
    * S4 values are automatically coerced to vector (via as.vector)
      when subassigned into atomic vectors.
    * findInterval() gets a option.
    * The version of LAPACK included in the sources has been updated to
      3.6.0, including those 'deprecated' routines which were
      previously included.  _Ca_ 40 double-complex routines have been
      added at the request of a package maintainer.
      As before, the details of what is included are in
      src/modules/lapack/README and this now gives information on
      earlier additions.
    * tapply() has been made considerably more efficient without
      changing functionality, thanks to proposals from Peter Haverty
      and Suharto Anggono.  (PR#16640)
    * match.arg(arg) (the one-argument case) is faster; so is  (PR#16640)
    * The format method for object_size objects now also accepts
      "binary" units such as "KiB" and e.g., "Tb".  (Partly from
    * Profiling now records calls of the form foo::bar and some similar
      cases directly rather than as calls to <Anonymous>.  Contributed
      by Winston Chang.
    * New string utilities startsWith(x, prefix) and endsWith(x,
      suffix).  Also provide speedups for some grepl("^...",*) uses
      (related to proposals in PR#16490).
    * Reference class finalizers run at exit, as well as on garbage
    * Avoid parallel dependency on stats for port choice and random
      number seeds.  (PR#16668)
    * The radix sort algorithm and implementation from data.table
      (forder) replaces the previous radix (counting) sort and adds a
      new method for order().  Contributed by Matt Dowle and Arun
      Srinivasan, the new algorithm supports logical, integer (even
      with large values), real, and character vectors.  It outperforms
      all other methods, but there are some caveats (see ?sort).
    * The order() function gains a method argument for choosing between
      "shell" and "radix".
    * New function grouping() returns a permutation that stably
      rearranges data so that identical values are adjacent.  The
      return value includes extra partitioning information on the
      groups.  The implementation came included with the new radix
    * rhyper(nn, m, n, k) no longer returns NA when one of the three
      parameters exceeds the maximal integer.
    * switch() now warns when no alternatives are provided.
    * parallel::detectCores() now has default logical = TRUE on all
      platforms - as this was the default on Windows, this change only
      affects Sparc Solaris.
      Option logical = FALSE is now supported on Linux and recent
      versions of OS X (for the latter, thanks to a suggestion of Kyaw
    * hist() for "Date" or "POSIXt" objects would sometimes give
      misleading labels on the breaks, as they were set to the day
      before the start of the period being displayed.  The display
      format has been changed, and the shift of the start day has been
      made conditional on right = TRUE (the default).  (PR#16679)
    * R now uses a new version of the logo (donated to the R Foundation
      by RStudio).  It is defined in .svg format, so will resize
      without unnecessary degradation when displayed on HTML
      pages-there is also a vector PDF version.  Thanks to Dirk
      Eddelbuettel for producing the corresponding X11 icon.
    * New function .traceback() returns the stack trace which
      traceback() prints.
    * lengths() dispatches internally.
    * dotchart() gains a pt.cex argument to control the size of points
      separately from the size of plot labels.  Thanks to Michael
      Friendly and Milan Bouchet-Valat for ideas and patches.
    * as.roman(ch) now correctly deals with more diverse character
      vectors ch; also arithmetic with the resulting roman numbers
      works in more cases.  (PR#16779)
    * prcomp() gains a new option rank. allowing to directly aim for
      less than min(n,p) PC's.  The summary() and its print() method
      have been amended, notably for this case.
    * gzcon() gains a new option text, which marks the connection as
      text-oriented (so e.g. pushBack() works).  It is still always
      opened in binary mode.
    * The import() namespace directive now accepts an argument except
      which names symbols to exclude from the imports. The except
      expression should evaluate to a character vector (after
      substituting symbols for strings). See Writing R Extensions.
    * New convenience function Rcmd() in package tools for invoking R
      CMD tools from within R.
    * New functions makevars_user() and makevars_site() in package
      tools to determine the location of the user and site specific
      Makevars files for customizing package compilation.
* Fri Apr 15 2016
  - CHANGES IN R 3.2.5:
      • format.POSIXlt() behaved incorrectly in R 3.2.4.  E.g. the output
      of format(as.POSIXlt(paste0(1940:2000,"-01-01"), tz = "CET"),
      usetz = TRUE) ended in two "CEST" time formats.
      • A typo in the Makefile for src/extra/xz prevented builds of
      liblzma.a. (Notice that this will become unbundled in 3.3.0.)
* Thu Mar 17 2016
  - upstrem releases minorst bug fix release
    NEWS: The 3.2.4 release had two annoyances which we would rather
    not have in an "ultra-stable" release, designed to hang around
    for the duration of the 3.3 series. One was a relatively minor
    Makefile issue affecting system using R's bundled lzma library.
    The other, rather more serious, affected printing and formatting
    of POSIXlt objects, which would unpredictably get the Daylight
    Savings Time wrong.
* Fri Mar 11 2016
  - Some version numbers of recommended packages corrected
* Fri Mar 11 2016
  - Release numbers for sub-packages improved
* Fri Mar 11 2016
  - added MakefileTypo.patch to enable building for 12.2
    was a one charcter show stopper
* Thu Mar 10 2016
  - upstream release 3.2.4, only minor improvements
    CHANGES IN R 3.2.4:
      • install.packages() and related functions now give a more
      informative warning when an attempt is made to install a base
      • summary(x) now prints with less rounding when x contains infinite
      values. (Request of PR#16620.)
      • provideDimnames() gets an optional unique argument.
      • shQuote() gains type = "cmd2" for quoting in cmd.exe in Windows.
      (Response to PR#16636.)
      • The data.frame method of rbind() gains an optional argument
      stringsAsFactors (instead of only depending on
      • smooth(x, *) now also works for long vectors.
      • tools::texi2dvi() has a workaround for problems with the texi2dvi
      script supplied by texinfo 6.1.
      It extracts more error messages from the LaTeX logs when in
      emulation mode.
      • R CMD check will leave a log file build_vignettes.log from the
      re-building of vignettes in the .Rcheck directory if there is a
      problem, and always if environment variable
      _R_CHECK_ALWAYS_LOG_VIGNETTE_OUTPUT_ is set to a true value.
      • Use of SUPPORT_OPENMP from header Rconfig.h is deprecated in
      favour of the standard OpenMP define _OPENMP.
      (This has been the recommendation in the manual for a while now.)
      • The make macro AWK which is long unused by R itself but recorded
      in file etc/Makeconf is deprecated and will be removed in R
      • The C header file S.h is no longer documented: its use should be
      replaced by R.h.
* Mon Mar 07 2016
  - The big split up. What was a monolithic R-base*rpm now is
    divided over 30 something packages, with the following layout.
    R-base-3.2.3: dummy packages, contains all of R
    Use R-base, if you don´t have a good understandig what it means
    to install only parts of it!
    R-base-devel-3.2.3: dummy, contains R-core-devel
    R-core-3.2.3: R core, no packages at all
    R-core-devel-3.2.3: devel files
    R-core-libs-3.2.3: contains Rlib
    R-core-doc-3.2.3: all the documentation of R-core
    R-core-packages-3.2.3: dummy package to load all core packages, that are
    Each of these packages may be installed alone.
    R-recommended-packages-3.2.3: dummy package to load all recommeded
      packages, that are
      R-Matrix-1.2.3, R-Matrix-devel-1.2.3,
    Each of these packages may be installed alone.
* Fri Dec 11 2015
  - Upstream release R-3.2.3
    CHANGES IN R 3.2.3:
    * Some recently-added Windows time zone names have been added to
      the conversion table used to convert these to Olson names.
      (Including those relating to changes for Russia in Oct 2014, as
      in PR#16503.)
    * (Windows) Compatibility information has been added to the
      manifests for Rgui.exe, Rterm.exe and Rscript.exe.  This should
      allow win.version() and to report the actual Windows
      version up to Windows 10.
    * Windows "wininet" FTP first tries EPSV / PASV mode rather than
      only using active mode (reported by Dan Tenenbaum).
    * which.min(x) and which.max(x) may be much faster for logical and
      integer x and now also work for long vectors.
    * The 'emulation' part of tools::texi2dvi() has been somewhat
      enhanced, including supporting quiet = TRUE.  It can be selected
      by texi2dvi = "emulation".
      (Windows) MiKTeX removed its texi2dvi.exe command in Sept 2015:
      tools::texi2dvi() tries texify.exe if it is not found.
    * (Windows only) Shortcuts for printing and saving have been added
      to menus in Rgui.exe.  (Request of PR#16572.)
    * loess(..., iterTrace=TRUE) now provides diagnostics for
      robustness iterations, and the print() method for
      summary(<loess>) shows slightly more.
    * The included version of PCRE has been updated to 8.38, a bug-fix
    * View() now displays nested data frames in a more friendly way.
      (Request with patch in PR#15915.)
    * The included configuration code for libintl has been updated to
      that from gettext version - this should only affect how
      an external library is detected (and the only known instance is
      under OpenBSD).  (Wish of PR#16464.)
    * configure has a new argument --disable-java to disable the checks
      for Java.
    * The configure default for MAIN_LDFLAGS has been changed for the
      FreeBSD, NetBSD and Hurd OSes to one more likely to work with
      compilers other than gcc (FreeBSD 10 defaults to clang).
    * configure now supports the OpenMP flags -fopenmp=libomp (clang)
      and -qopenmp (Intel C).
    * Various macros can be set to override the default behaviour of
      configure when detecting OpenMP: see file
    * Source installation on Windows has been modified to allow for
      MiKTeX installations without texi2dvi.exe.  See file
    * regexpr(pat, x, perl = TRUE) with Python-style named capture did
      not work correctly when x contained NA strings.  (PR#16484)
    * The description of dataset ToothGrowth has been
      improved/corrected.  (PR#15953)
    * model.tables(type = "means") and hence TukeyHSD() now support
      "aov" fits without an intercept term.  (PR#16437)
    * close() now reports the status of a pipe() connection opened with
      an explicit open argument.  (PR#16481)
    * Coercing a list without names to a data frame is faster if the
      elements are very long. (PR#16467)
    * (Unix-only) Under some rare circumstances piping the output from
      Rscript or R -f could result in attempting to close the input
      file twice, possibly crashing the process.  (PR#16500)
    * (Windows) was out of step with win.version() and did
      not report Windows 8.
    * topenv(baseenv()) returns baseenv() again as in R 3.1.0 and
      earlier.  This also fixes compilerJIT(3) when used in .Rprofile.
    * detach()ing the methods package keeps .isMethodsDispatchOn()
      true, as long as the methods namespace is not unloaded.
    * Removed some spurious warnings from configure about the
      preprocessor not finding header files.  (PR#15989)
    * rchisq(*, df=0, ncp=0) now returns 0 instead of NaN, and
      dchisq(*, df=0, ncp=*) also no longer returns NaN in limit cases
      (where the limit is unique).  (PR#16521)
    * pchisq(*, df=0, ncp > 0, log.p=TRUE) no longer underflows (for
      ncp > ~60).
    * nchar(x, "w") returned -1 for characters it did not know about
      (e.g. zero-width spaces): it now assumes 1.  It now knows about
      most zero-width characters and a few more double-width
    * Help for which.min() is now more precise about behavior with
      logical arguments.  (PR#16532)
    * The print width of character strings marked as "latin1" or
      "bytes" was in some cases computed incorrectly.
    * abbreviate() did not give names to the return value if minlength
      was zero, unlike when it was positive.
    * (Windows only) dir.create() did not always warn when it failed to
      create a directory.  (PR#16537)
    * When operating in a non-UTF-8 multibyte locale (e.g. an East
      Asian locale on Windows), grep() and related functions did not
      handle UTF-8 strings properly.  (PR#16264)
    * read.dcf() sometimes misread lines longer than 8191 characters.
      (Reported by Herv'e Pag`es with a patch.)
    * within(df, ..) no longer drops columns whose name start with a
    * The built-in HTTP server converted entire Content-Type to
      lowercase including parameters which can cause issues for
      multi-part form boundaries (PR#16541).
    * Modifying slots of S4 objects could fail when the methods package
      was not attached. (PR#16545)
    * splineDesign(*, outer.ok=TRUE) (splines) is better now
      (PR#16549), and interpSpline() now allows sparse=TRUE for speedup
      with non-small sizes.
    * If the expression in the traceback was too long, traceback() did
      not report the source line number.  (Patch by Kirill M"uller.)
    * The browser did not truncate the display of the function when
      exiting with options("deparse.max.lines") set.  (PR#16581)
    * When bs(*, Boundary.knots=) had boundary knots inside the data
      range, extrapolation was somewhat off.  (Patch by Trevor Hastie.)
    * var() and hence sd() warn about factor arguments which are
      deprecated now. (PR#16564)
    * loess(*, weights = *) stored wrong weights and hence gave
      slightly wrong predictions for newdata.  (PR#16587)
    * aperm(a, *) now preserves names(dim(a)).
    * poly(x, ..) now works when either raw=TRUE or coef is specified.
    * data(package=*) is more careful in determining the path.
    * prettyNum(*, decimal.mark, big.mark): fixed bug introduced when
      fixing PR#16411.
* Thu Dec 10 2015
  - Reverse the whole split. Back to the big package.
    Had user reports of broken installations.
    R-base, R-base-devel and R-base-libs are provided for now.
    The big split will come for 3.3.0
* Wed Dec 09 2015
  - R-base was changed from a giant monolith to thirty-some packages.
    There were requests to use the libs without the interpreter.
    Furthermore it is now possible to use a frugal installation of R.
    The following binaries are built now:
    R-base-3.2.2-5.1.x86_64.rpm : A Meta-package. Use this, and it looks
      just like it looked the last 10 years.
    Requires base and recommended packages.
    R-base-devel-3.2.2-5.1.x86_64.rpm: Just for backward compatibility.
    R-core-devel-3.2.2-5.1.x86_64.rpm : The R-core packages install
      a bare-bones R. No packages inculded.
    R-tools-3.2.2-5.1.x86_64.rpm : All the base packages.
    R-recommended-3.2.2-5.1.x86_64.rpm : A meta-package including all
      recommended packages.
    R-spatial-7.3.10-5.1.x86_64.rpm : All recommended packaged.
      Note: They now have their own version
    numbers, so it should be much easier to
    use newer Versions of the recommended
    And the source RPM for all the above.
* Wed Aug 19 2015
  - Disable building man files for openSUSE:42.
* Mon Aug 17 2015
  - Upstream release 3.2.2
  - Most important
    CHANGES IN R 3.2.2:
    * It is now easier to use secure downloads from https:// URLs on
      builds which support them: no longer do non-default options need
      to be selected to do so.  In particular, packages can be
      installed from repositories which offer https:// URLs, and those
      listed by setRepositories() now do so (for some of their
      Support for https:// URLs is available on Windows, and on other
      platforms if support for libcurl was compiled in and if that
      supports the https protocol (system installations can be expected
      to do).  So https:// support can be expected except on rather old
      OSes (an example being OS X 'Snow Leopard', where a non-system
      version of libcurl can be used).
      (Windows only) The default method for accessing URLs _via_
      download.file() and url() has been changed to be "wininet" using
      Windows API calls.  This changes the way proxies need to be set
      and security settings made: there have been some reports of sites
      being inaccessible under the new default method (but the previous
      methods remain available).
    * cmdscale() gets new option list. for increased flexibility when a
      list should be returned.
    * configure now supports texinfo version 6.0, which (unlike the
      change from 4.x to 5.0) is a minor update.  (Wish of PR#16456.)
    * (Non-Windows only) download.file() with default method = "auto"
      now chooses "libcurl" if that is available and a https:// or
      ftps:// URL is used.
    * (Windows only) setInternet2(TRUE) is now the default.  The
      command-line option --internet2 and environment variable
      R_WIN_INTERNET2 are now ignored.
      Thus by default the "internal" method for download.file() and
      url() uses the "wininet" method: to revert to the previous
      default use setInternet2(FALSE).
      This means that https:// can be read by default by
      download.file() (they have been readable by file() and url()
      since R 3.2.0).
      There are implications for how proxies need to be set (see
      ?download.file): also, cacheOK = FALSE is not supported.
    * chooseCRANmirror() and chooseBioCmirror() now offer HTTPS mirrors
      in preference to HTTP mirrors.  This changes the interpretation
      of their ind arguments: see their help pages.
    * capture.output() gets optional arguments type and split to pass
      to sink(), and hence can be used to capture messages.
    * Header Rconfig.h now defines HAVE_ALLOCA_H if the platform has
      the alloca.h header (it is needed to define alloca on Solaris and
      AIX, at least: see 'Writing R Extensions' for how to use it).
    * The libtool script generated by configure has been modified to
      support FreeBSD >= 10 (PR#16410).
    * The HTML help page links to demo code failed due to a change in R
      3.2.0.  (PR#16432)
    * If the na.action argument was used in model.frame(), the original
      data could be modified. (PR#16436)
    * getGraphicsEvent() could cause a crash if a graphics window was
      closed while it was in use. (PR#16438)
    * matrix(x, nr, nc, byrow = TRUE) failed if x was an object of type
    * strptime() could overflow the allocated storage on the C stack
      when the timezone had a non-standard format much longer than the
      standard formats. (Part of PR#16328.)
    * options(OutDec = s) now signals a warning (which will become an
      error in the future) when s is not a string with exactly one
      character, as that has been a documented requirement.
    * prettyNum() gains a new option input.d.mark which together with
      other changes, e.g., the default for decimal.mark, fixes some
      format()ting variants with non-default getOption("OutDec") such
      as in PR#16411.
    * download.packages() failed for type equal to either "both" or
      "binary".  (Reported by Dan Tenenbaum.)
    * The dendrogram method of labels() is much more efficient for
      large dendrograms, now using rapply().  (Comment #15 of PR#15215)
    * The "port" algorithm of nls() could give spurious errors.
      (Reported by Radford Neal.)
    * Reference classes that inherited from reference classes in
      another package could invalidate methods of the inherited class.
      Fixing this requires adding the ability for methods to be
      "external", with the object supplied explicitly as the first
      argument, named .self. See "Inter-Package Superclasses" in the
    * readBin() could fail on the SPARC architecture due to alignment
      issues.  (Reported by Radford Neal.)
    * qt(*, df=Inf, ncp=.) now uses the natural qnorm() limit instead
      of returning NaN. (PR#16475)
    * Auto-printing of S3 and S4 values now searches for print() in the
      base namespace and show() in the methods namespace instead of
      searching the global environment.
    * polym() gains a coefs = NULL argument and returns class "poly"
      just like poly() which gets a new simple=FALSE option.  They now
      lead to correct predict()ions, e.g., on subsets of the original
    * rhyper(nn, <large>) now works correctly. (PR#16489)
    * ttkimage() did not (and could not) work so was removed. Ditto for
      tkimage.cget() and tkimage.configure(). Added two Ttk widgets and
      missing subcommands for Tk's image command: ttkscale(),
      ttkspinbox(), tkimage.delete(), tkimage.height(),
      tkimage.inuse(), tkimage.type(), tkimage.types(),
      tkimage.width(). (PR#15372, PR#16450)
    * getClass("foo") now also returns a class definition when it is
      found in the cache more than once.
* Thu Jun 18 2015
  - Upstream release 3.2.1
  - Improvement of build: include libcurl and texlive-dvips/
  - Most important
    CHANGES IN R 3.2.1:
    * utf8ToInt() now checks that its input is valid UTF-8 and returns
      NA if it is not.
    * install.packages() now allows type = "both" with repos = NULL if
      it can infer the type of file.
    * nchar(x, *) and nzchar(x) gain a new argument keepNA which
      governs how the result for NAs in x is determined.  For the R
      3.2.x series, the default remains FALSE which is fully back
      compatible.  From R 3.3.0, the default will change to keepNA = NA
      and you are advised to consider this for code portability.
    * news() more flexibly extracts dates from package NEWS.Rd files.
    * lengths(x) now also works (trivially) for atomic x and hence can
      be used more generally as an efficient replacement of sapply(x,
      length) and similar.
    * The included version of PCRE has been updated to 8.37, a bug-fix
    * diag() no longer duplicates a matrix when extracting its
    * as.character.srcref() gains an argument to allow characters
      corresponding to a range of source references to be extracted.
    * acf() and ccf() now guarantee values strictly in [-1,1] (instead
      of sometimes very slightly outside). PR#15832.
    * as.integer("111111111111") now gives NA (with a warning) as it
      does for the corresponding numeric or negative number coercions.
      Further, as.integer(M + 0.1) now gives M (instead of NA) when M
      is the maximal representable integer.
    * On some platforms nchar(x, "c") and nchar(x, "w") would return
      values (possibly NA) for inputs which were declared to be UTF-8
      but were not, or for invalid strings without a marked encoding in
      a multi-byte locale, rather than give an error.  Additional
      checks have been added to mitigate this.
    * apply(a, M, function(u) c(X = ., Y = .)) again has dimnames
      containing "X" and "Y" (as in R < 3.2.0).
    * (Windows only) In some cases, the --clean option to R CMD INSTALL
      could fail.  (PR#16178)
    * (Windows only) choose.files() would occasionally include
      characters from the result of an earlier call in the result of a
      later one.  (PR#16270)
    * A change in RSiteSearch() in R 3.2.0 caused it to submit invalid
      URLs.  (PR#16329)
    * Rscript and command line R silently ignored incomplete statements
      at the end of a script; now they are reported as parse errors.
    * Parse data for very long strings was not stored.  (PR#16354)
    * plotNode(), the workhorse of the plot method for "dendrogram"s is
      no longer recursive, thanks to Suharto Anggono, and hence also
      works for deeply nested dendrograms.  (PR#15215)
    * The parser could overflow internally when given numbers in
      scientific format with extremely large exponents.  (PR#16358)
    * If the CRAN mirror was not set, install.packages(type = "both")
      and related functions could repeatedly query the user for it.
      (Part of PR#16362)
    * The low-level functions .rowSums() etc. did not check the length
      of their argument, so could segfault. (PR#16367)
    * The quietly argument of library() is now correctly propagated
      from .getRequiredPackages2().
    * Under some circumstances using the internal PCRE when building R
      fron source would cause external libs such as -llzma to be
      omitted from the main link.
    * The .Primitive default methods of the logic operators, i.e., !, &
      and |, now give correct error messages when appropriate, e.g.,
      for `&`(TRUE) or `!`().  (PR#16385)
    * cummax(x) now correctly propagates NAs also when x is of type
      integer and begins with an NA.
    * summaryRprof() could fail when the profile contained only two
      records.  (PR#16395)
    * HTML vignettes opened using vignette() did not support links into
      the rest of the HTML help system.  (Links worked properly when
      the vignette was opened using browseVignettes() or from within
      the help system.)
    * arima(*, xreg = .) (for d >= 1) computes estimated variances
      based on a the number of effective observations as in R version
      3.0.1 and earlier.  (PR#16278)
    * slotNames(.) is now correct for "signature" objects (mostly used
      internally in methods).
    * On some systems, the first string comparison after a locale
      change would result in NA.
* Thu Apr 16 2015
  - Upstream release 3.2.0
  - Most important
    CHANGES IN 3.2.0:
    * anyNA() gains a recursive argument.
    * When x is missing and names is not false (including the default
      value), Sys.getenv(x, names) returns an object of class "Dlist"
      and hence prints tidily.
    * (Windows.)  shell() no longer consults the environment variable
      SHELL: too many systems have been encountered where it was set
      incorrectly (usually to a path where software was compiled, not
      where it was installed).  R_SHELL, the preferred way to select a
      non-default shell, can be used instead.
    * Some unusual arguments to embedFonts() can now be specified as
      character vectors, and the defaults have been changed
    * Functions in the Summary group duplicate less.  (PR#15798)
    * (Unix-alikes.) system(cmd, input = ) now uses
      'shell-execution-environment' redirection, which will be more
      natural if cmd is not a single command (but requires a
      POSIX-compliant shell). (Wish of PR#15508)
    * read.fwf() and read.DIF() gain a fileEncoding argument, for
    * Graphics devices can add attributes to their description in
      .Device and .Devices.  Several of those included with R use a
      "filepath" attribute.
    * pmatch() uses hashing in more cases and so is faster at the
      expense of using more memory. (PR#15697)
    * pairs() gains new arguments to select sets of variables to be
      plotted against each other.
    *, extra_cols = FALSE) allows a minimal set of columns
      to be computed on Unix-alikes: on some systems without
      properly-configured caching this can be significantly faster with
      large file lists.
    * New function dir.exists() in package base to test efficiently
      whether one or more paths exist and are directories.
    * dput() and friends gain new controls hexNumeric and digits17
      which output double and complex quantities as, respectively,
      binary fractions (exactly, see sprintf("%a")) and as decimals
      with up to 17 significant digits.
    * save(), saveRDS() and serialize() now support ascii = NA which
      writes ASCII files using sprintf("%a") for double/complex
      quantities.  This is read-compatible with ascii = TRUE but avoids
      binary->decimal->binary conversions with potential loss of
      precision.  Unfortunately the Windows C runtime's lack of C99
      compliance means that the format cannot be read correctly there
      in R before 3.1.2.
    * The default for formatC(decimal.mark =) has been changed to be
      getOption("OutDec"); this makes it more consistent with format()
      and suitable for use in print methods, e.g. those for classes
      "density", "ecdf", "stepfun" and "summary.lm".
      getOption("OutDec") is now consulted by the print method for
      class "kmeans", by cut(), dendrogram(), plot.ts() and quantile()
      when constructing labels and for the report from legend(trace =
      (In part, wish of PR#15819.)
    * printNum() and hence format() and formatC() give a warning if
      big.mark and decimal.mark are set to the same value (period and
      comma are not uncommonly used for each, and this is a check that
      conventions have not got mixed).
    * merge() can create a result which uses long vectors on 64-bit
    * dget() gains a new argument keep.source which defaults to FALSE
      for speed (dput() and dget() are most often used for data objects
      where this can make dget() many times faster).
    * Packages may now use a file of common macro definitions in their
      help files, and may import definitions from other packages.
    * A number of macros have been added in the new share/Rd directory
      for use in package overview help pages, and promptPackage() now
      makes use of them.
    * tools::parse_Rd() gains a new permissive argument which converts
      unrecognized macros into text.  This is used by
      utils:::format.bibentry to allow LaTeX markup to be ignored.
    * options(OutDec =) can now specify a multi-byte character, e.g.,
      options(OutDec = "\u00b7") in a UTF-8 locale.
    * is.recursive(x) is no longer true when x is an external pointer,
      a weak reference or byte code; the first enables all.equal(x, x)
      when x <- getClass(.).
    * ls() (aka objects()) and as.list.environment() gain a new
      argument sorted.
    * The "source" attribute (which has not been added to functions by
      R since before R version 2.14.0) is no longer treated as special.
    * Function returnValue() has been added to give on.exit() code
      access to a function's return value for debugging purposes.
    * crossprod(x, y) allows more matrix coercions when x or y are
      vectors, now equalling t(x) %*% y in these cases (also reported
      by Radford Neal).  Similarly, tcrossprod(x,y) and %*% work in
      more cases with vector arguments.
    * Utility function dynGet() useful for detecting cycles, aka
      infinite recursions.
    * The byte-code compiler and interpreter include new instructions
      that allow many scalar subsetting and assignment and scalar
      arithmetic operations to be handled more efficiently. This can
      result in significant performance improvements in scalar
      numerical code.
    * apply(m, 2, identity) is now the same as the matrix m when it has
      _named_ row names.
    * A new function debuggingState() has been added, allowing to
      temporarily turn off debugging.
    * example() gets a new optional argument run.donttest and
      tools::Rd2ex() a corresponding commentDonttest, with a default
      such that example(..) in help examples will run \donttest code
      only if used interactively (a change in behaviour).
    * gains an optional argument make.row.names, for
      potential speedup.
    * New function extSoftVersion() to report on the versions of
      third-party software in use in this session.  Currently reports
      versions of zlib, bzlib, the liblzma from xz, PCRE, ICU, TRE and
      the iconv implementation.
      A similar function grSoftVersion() in package grDevices reports
      on third-party graphics software.
      Function tcltk::tclVersion() reports the Tcl/Tk version.
    * Calling callGeneric() without arguments now works with primitive
      generics to some extent.
    * vapply(x, FUN, FUN.VALUE) is more efficient notably for large
      length(FUN.VALUE); as extension of PR#16061.
    * as.table() now allows tables with one or more dimensions of
      length 0 (such as as.table(integer())).
    * names(x) <- NULL now clears the names of call and ... objects.
    * library() will report a warning when an insufficient dependency
      version is masking a sufficient one later on the library search
    * A new plot() method for class "raster" has been added.
    * New check_packages_in_dir_changes() function in package tools for
      conveniently analyzing how changing sources impacts the check
      results of their reverse dependencies.
    * Speed-up from Peter Haverty for ls() and
      methods:::.requirePackage() speeding up package loading.
    * New get0() function, combining exists() and get() in one call,
      for efficiency.
    * gains an envir argument for specifying the
      environment from which to retrieve the ... in the call, if any;
      this environment was wrong (or at least undesirable) when the
      definition argument was a function.
    * topenv() has been made .Internal() for speedup, based on Peter
      Haverty's proposal in PR#16140.
    * getOption() no longer calls options() in the main case.
    * Optional use of libcurl (version 7.28.0 from Oct 2012 or later)
      for Internet access:
    * capabilities("libcurl") reports if this is available.
    * libcurlVersion() reports the version in use, and other
      details of the "libcurl" build including which URL schemes it
    * curlGetHeaders() retrieves the headers for http://, https://,
      ftp:// and ftps:// URLs: analysis of these headers can
      provide insights into the `existence' of a URL (it might for
      example be permanently redirected) and is so used in R CMD
      check --as-cran.
    * download.file() has a new optional method "libcurl" which
      will handle more URL schemes, follow redirections, and allows
      simultaneous downloads of multiple URLs.
    * url() has a new method "libcurl" which handles more URL
      schemes and follows redirections.  The default method is
      controlled by a new option url.method, which applies also to
      the opening of URLs _via_ file() (which happens implicitly in
      functions such as read.table.)
    * When file() or url() is invoked with a https:// or ftps://
      URL which the current method cannot handle, it switches to a
      suitable method if one is available.
    * (Windows.) The DLLs internet.dll and internet2.dll have been
      merged.  In this version it is safe to switch (repeatedly)
      between the internal and Windows internet functions within an R
      The Windows internet functions are still selected by flag
    - -internet2 or setInternet2().  This can be overridden for an
      url() connection _via_ its new method argument.
      download.file() has new method "wininet", selected as the default
      by --internet2 or setInternet2().
    * parent.env<- can no longer modify the parent of a locked
      namespace or namespace imports environment.  Contributed by Karl
    * New function isLoadedNamespace() for readability and speed.
    * names(env) now returns all the object names of an environment
      env, equivalently to ls(env, all.names = TRUE, sorted = FALSE)
      and also to the names of the corresponding list,
      names(as.list(env, all.names = TRUE)).  Note that although
      names() returns a character vector, the names have no particular
    * The memory manager now grows the heap more aggressively. This
      reduces the number of garbage collections, in particular while
      data or code are loaded, at the expense of slightly increasing
      the memory footprint.
    * New function trimws() for removing leading/trailing whitespace.
    * cbind() and rbind() now consider S4 inheritance during S3
      dispatch and also obey deparse.level.
    * cbind() and rbind() will delegate recursively to methods::cbind2
      (methods::rbind2) when at least one argument is an S4 object and
      S3 dispatch fails (due to ambiguity).
    * (Windows.)  download.file(quiet = FALSE) now uses text rather
      than Windows progress bars in non-interactive use.
    * New function hsearch_db() in package utils for building and
      retrieving the help search database used by, along
      with functions for inspecting the concepts and keywords in the
      help search database.
    * New function .getNamespaceInfo(), a no-check version of
      getNamespaceInfo() mostly for internal speedups.
    * The help search system now takes \keyword entries in Rd files
      which are not standard keywords (as given in KEYWORDS in the R
      documentation directory) as concepts.  For standard keyword
      entries the corresponding descriptions are additionally taken as
    * New lengths() function for getting the lengths of all elements in
      a list.
    * New function toTitleCase() in package tools, tailored to package
    * The matrix methods of cbind() and rbind() allow matrices as
      inputs which have 2^31 or more elements.  (For cbind(), wish of
    * The default method of image() has an explicit check for a numeric
      or logical matrix (which was always required).
    * URLencode() will not by default encode further URLs which appear
      to be already encoded.
    * BIC(mod) and BIC(mod, mod2) now give non-NA numbers for arima()
      fitted models, as nobs(mod) now gives the number of "used"
      observations for such models.  This fixes PR#16198, quite
      differently than proposed there.
    * The print() methods for "htest", "pairwise.htest" and
      "power.htest" objects now have a digits argument defaulting to (a
      function of) getOption("digits"), and influencing all printed
      numbers coherently.  Unavoidably, this changes the display of
      such test results in some cases.
    * Code completion for namespaces now recognizes all loaded
      namespaces, rather than only the ones that are also attached.
    * The code completion mechanism can now be replaced by a
      user-specified completer function, for (temporary) situations
      where the usual code completion is inappropriate.
    * unzip() will now warn if it is able to detect truncation when
      unpacking a file of 4GB or more (related to PR#16243).
    * methods() reports S4 in addition to S3 methods; output is
      simplified when the class argument is used.  .S3methods() and
      methods::.S4methods() report S3 and S4 methods separately.
    * Higher order functions such as the apply functions and Reduce()
      now force arguments to the functions they apply in order to
      eliminate undesirable interactions between lazy evaluation and
      variable capture in closures.  This resolves PR#16093.
    * The \donttest sections of R's help files can be tested by
      make check TEST_DONTTEST=TRUE .
    * It is possible to request the use of system valgrind headers
      _via_ configure option --with-system-valgrind-headers: note the
      possible future incompatibility of such headers discussed in the
      'R Installation and Administration' manual. (Wish of PR#16068.)
    * The included version of liblzma has been updated to xz-utils
      5.0.7 (minor bug fixes from 5.0.5).
    * configure options --with-system-zlib, --with-system-bzlib and
    - -with-system-pcre are now the default.  For the time being there
      is fallback to the versions included in the R sources if no
      system versions are found or (unlikely) if they are too old.
      Linux users should check that the -devel or -dev versions of
      packages zlib, bzip2/libbz2 and pcre as well as
      xz-devel/liblzma-dev (or similar names) are installed.
    * configure by default looks for the texi2any script from texinfo
      5.1 or later, rather than the makeinfo program.  (makeinfo is a
      link to the Perl script texi2any in texinfo 5.x.)
    * R CMD INSTALL gains an option --built-timestamp=STAMP allowing
      100% reproducible package building, thanks to Dirk Eddelbuettel.
    * There is support for testing the \dontrun and \donttest parts of
      examples in packages.
      tools::testInstalledPackage() accepts new arguments
      commentDontrun = FALSE and commentDonttest = FALSE.
      R CMD check gains options --run-dontrun and --run-donttest.
    * The HTML generated by tools::Rd2HTML() and tools::toHTML()
      methods is now 'XHTML 1.0 Strict'.
    * The compiler package's utility function setCompilerOptions() now
      returns the old values invisibly. The initial optimization level
      can also be set with the environment variable
    * R CMD build adds a NeedsCompilation field if one is not already
      present in the DESCRIPTION file.
    * R CMD check gains option --test-dir to specify an alternative set
      of tests to run.
    * R CMD check will now by default continue with testing after many
      types of errors, and will output a summary count of errors at the
      end if any have occurred.
    * R CMD check now checks that the Title and Description fields are
      correctly terminated.
    * R CMD check --as-cran now:
    * checks a file can be processed: this needs pandoc
    * checks the existence and accessibility of URLs in the
      DESCRIPTION, CITATION, NEWS.Rd and files and in the
      help files (provided the build has libcurl support).
    * reports non-ASCII characters in R source files when there is
      no package encoding declared in the DESCRIPTION file.
    * reports (apparent) S3 methods exported but not registered.
    * reports overwriting registered S3 methods from
      base/recommended packages.  (Such methods are replaced in the
      affected package for the rest of the session, even if the
      replacing namespace is unloaded.)
    * reports if the Title field does not appear to be in title
      case (see 'Writing R Extensions': there may be false
      positives, but note that technical words should be
      single-quoted and will then be accepted).
      Most of these checks can also be selected by environment
      variables: see the 'R Internals' manual.
    * New C API utility logspace_sum(logx[], n).
    * Entry points rbinom_mu, rnbinom_mu and rmultinom are remapped (by
      default) to Rf_rbinom_mu etc.  This requires packages using them
      to be re-installed.
    * .C(DUP = FALSE) and .Fortran(DUP = FALSE) are now ignored, so
      arguments are duplicated if DUP = TRUE would do so.  As their
      help has long said, .Call() is much preferred.
    * New entry point R_allocLD, like R_alloc but guaranteed to have
      sufficient alignment for long double pointers.
    * isPairList() now returns TRUE for DOTSXP.
    A number of changes to the Windows build system are in development.
    The following are currently in place.
    * Installation using external binary distributions of zlib, bzip2,
      liblzma, pcre, libpng, jpeglib and libtiff is now required, and
      the build instructions have been revised.
    * A new make target rsync-extsoft has been added to obtain copies
      of the external libraries from CRAN.
    * Building the manuals now requires texi2any from texinfo 5.1 or
      later.  CRAN binary builds include the manuals, but by default
      builds from source will not, and they will be accessed from CRAN.
      See the comments in src/gnuwin32/MkRules.dist for how to specify
      the location of texi2any.
    * (Windows) Changes have been made to support an experimental
      Windows toolchain based on GCC 4.9.2.  The default toolchain
      continues to be based on GCC 4.6.3, as the new toolchain is not
      yet stable enough.  A change to a new toolchain is expected
      during the R 3.2.x lifetime.
    * (Windows) The use of macro ZLIB_LIBS in file src/
      (which has not been documented for a long time) now requires an
      external libz.a to be available (it is part of the 'goodies' used
      to compile Windows binary packages).  It would be simpler to use
    - lz instead.
    * The default for option pkgType on platforms using binary packages
      is now "both", so source packages will be tried if binary
      versions are not available or not up to date.
      There are options for what install.packages(type = "both")
      (possibly called _via_ update.packages()) will do if compilation
      of a source package is desirable: see ?options (under utils).
      If you intend not to accept updates as source packages, you
      should use update.packages(type = "binary").
    * download.file(method = "lynx") is defunct.
    * Building R using the included versions of zlib, bzip2, xz and
      PCRE is deprecated: these are frozen (bar essential bug-fixes)
      and will be removed for R 3.3.0.
    * The configure option --with-valgrind-instrumentation=3 has been
      withdrawn, as it did not work with recent valgrind headers: it is
      now treated as level 2.
    * The MethodsList class in package methods had been deprecated in R
      2.11.0 and is defunct now.  Functions using it are defunct if
      they had been deprecated in R 2.11.0, and are deprecated now,
    * Fixed two obscure bugs in pairlist subassignment, reported by
      Radford Neal as part of pqR issue 16.
    * Fixes for bugs in handling empty arguments and argument matching
      by name in log().
    * all.equal() gains methods for environments and refClasses.
    * [<- and [[<- gain S4 data.frame methods to avoid corruption of S4
      class information by the S3 methods.
    * callNextMethod() should now work within a .local call when ... is
      absent from formals(.local).
    * dput(pairlist(x)) generates a call to the pairlist constructor
      instead of the list constructor.
    * Fix missing() when arguments are propagated through ... .
    * eigen(m) now defaults to symmetric = TRUE even when the dimnames
      are asymmetric if the matrix is otherwise symmetric.  (PR#16151)
    * Fix issues with forwarding ... through callGeneric() and
      callNextMethod().  (PR#16141)
    * callGeneric() now works after a callNextMethod().
    * Subclass information is kept consistent when replacing an
      ordinary S4 class with an "old class" _via_ the S4Class argument
      to setOldClass(). Thus, for example, a data.frame is valid for a
      list argument in the signature, and a factor is valid for vector
    * In qbeta() the inversion of pbeta() is much more sophisticated.
      This works better in corner cases some of which failed completely
      previously (PR#15755), or were using too many iterations.
    * Auto-printing no longer duplicates objects when printing is
      dispatched to a method.
    * kmeans(x, k) would fail when nrow(x) >= 42949673.  (Comment 6 of
    * 'Abbreviated' locale-specific day and month names could have been
      truncated in those rare locales where there are the same as the
      full names.
    * An irrelevant warning message from updating subclass information
      was silenced (the namespace would not be writable in this case).
* Mon Mar 09 2015
  - Upstream release 3.1.3
  - Most important
    CHANGES IN R 3.1.3:
    * The internal method of download.file() can now handle files
      larger than 2GB on 32-bit builds which support such files (tested
      on 32-bit R running on 64-bit Windows).
    * kruskal.test() warns on more types of suspicious input.
    * The as.dendrogram() method for "hclust" objects gains a check
      argument protecting against memory explosion for invalid inputs.
    * capabilities() has a new item long.double which indicates if the
      build uses a long double type which is longer than double.
    * nlm() no longer modifies the callback argument in place (a new
      vector is allocated for each invocation, which mimics the
      implicit duplication that occurred in R < 3.1.0); note that this
      is a change from the previously documented behavior. (PR#15958)
    * icuSetCollate() now accepts locale = "ASCII" which uses the basic
      C function strcmp and so collates strings byte-by-byte in
      numerical order.
    * sessionInfo() tries to report the OS version in use (not just
      that compiled under, and including details of Linux
    * model.frame() (used by lm() and many other modelling functions)
      now warns when it drops contrasts from factors.  (Wish of
    * install.packages() and friends now accept the value type =
      "binary" as a synonym for the native binary type on the platform
      (if it has one).
    * Single source or binary files can be supplied for
      install.packages(type = "both") and the appropriate type and
      repos = NULL will be inferred.
    * New function pcre_config() to report on some of the configuration
      options of the version of PCRE in use.  In particular, this
      reports if regular expressions using \p{xx} are supported.
    * (Windows.) download.file(cacheOK = FALSE) is now supported when
      internet2.dll is used.
    * browseURL() has been updated to work with Firefox 36.0 which has
      dropped support for the -remote interface.
    * The included version of PCRE has been updated to 8.36.
    * configure accepts MAKEINFO=texi2any as another way to ensure
      texinfo 5.x is used when both 5.x and 4.x are installed.
    * R CMD check now checks the packages used in \donttest sections of
      the examples are specified in the DESCRIPTION file.  (These are
      needed to run the examples interactively.)
    * R CMD check checks for the undeclared use of GNU extensions in
      Makefiles, and for Makefiles with a missing final linefeed.
      R CMD build will correct line endings in all Makefiles, not just
      those in the src directory.
    * R CMD check notes uses of library() and require() in package
      code: see the section 'Suggested packages' of 'Writing R
      Extensions' for good practice.
    * The configure option --with-valgrind-instrumentation=3 is
      deprecated and will be removed in R 3.2.0.
    * (Windows.) Rscript.exe was missing a manifest specifying the
      modern style for common controls (e.g., the download progress
    * If a package had extra documentation files but no vignette, the
      HTML help system produced an empty index page.
    * The parser now gives an error if a null character is included in
      a string using Unicode escapes. (PR#16046)
    * qr.Q() failed on complex arguments due to pre-3.0(!) typo.
    * abs() failed with named arguments when the argument was complex.
    * "noquote" objects may now be used as columns in dataframes.
    * Some values with extremely long names were printed incorrectly.
    * Extremely large exponents on zero expressed in scientific
      notation (e.g. 0.0e50000) could give NaN.  (PR#15976)
    * download.file() reported downloaded sizes as 0KB if less than
      1MB, only for R 3.1.2 and only on big-endian platforms.
    * prompt() did not escape percent signs in the automatically
      generated usage section of help files.
    * drop.terms() dropped some of the attributes of the object it was
      working with.  (PR#16029)
    * (Windows.) The command completion in Rgui.exe messed up the
      console.  (PR#15791)
    * (Windows.) The choose.files() command returned a blank string
      when the user asked for a single file but cancelled the request.
    * Math2 S4 group generics failed to correctly dispatch "structure"-
      and "nonStructure"-derived classes.
    * loadNamespace() imposed undocumented restrictions on the
      versionCheck parameter.  (Reported by Geoff Lee.)
    * Rare over-runs detected by AddressSanitizer in substr() and its
      replacement version have been avoided.
      _Inter alia_ that fix gives the documented behaviour for
      substr(x, 1, 2) <- "" (subsequently reported as PR#16214).
    * Loading packages incorrectly defining an S4 generic followed by a
      function of the same name caused an erroneous cyclic namespace
      dependency error.
    * Declared vignette encodings are now always passed to the vignette
    * Port Tomas Kalibera's fix from R-devel that restores the
      loadMethod() fast path, effectively doubling the speed of S4
    * power.t.test() and power.prop.test() now make use of the
      extendInt option of uniroot() and hence work in more extreme
      cases.  (PR#15792)
    * If a package was updated and attached when its namespace was
      already loaded, it could end up with parts from one version and
      parts from the other.  (PR#16120)
    * tools:::.Rdconv() didn't accept --encoding= due to a typo.
    * Unix-alike builds without a suitable makeinfo were documented to
      link the missing HTML manuals to CRAN, but did not.
    * save(*, ascii=TRUE) and load() now correctly deal with NaN's.
    * split.Date() retains fractional representations while avoiding
      incomplete class propagation.
    * R_ext/Lapack.h had not been updated for changes made by LAPACK to
      the argument lists of its (largely internal) functions dlaed2 and
      dlaed3.  (PR#16157)
    * RShowDoc("NEWS", "txt") had not been updated for the layout
      changes of R 3.1.0.
    * The xtfrm() method for class "Surv" has been corrected and its
      description expanded.
    * mode(x) <- y would incorrectly evaluate x before changing its
      mode. (PR#16215)
    * besselJ(1, 2^64) and besselY(..) now signal a warning, returning
      NaN instead of typically segfaulting. (Issue 3 of PR#15554)
    * HTML conversion of \href markup in .Rd files did not remove the
      backslash from \% and so gave an invalid URL.  In a related
      change, the \ escape is now required in such URLs.
* Fri Dec 12 2014
  - Remove tex(inconsolata.sty) BuildRequires for SLE_12 builds (like
    older SLE releases).
* Fri Oct 31 2014
  - Upstream release 3.1.2
  - Most important
    CHANGES IN R 3.1.2:
    * embedFonts() now defaults to format = "ps2write" for .ps and .eps
      files.  This is available in Ghostscript 9.x (since 2010) whereas
      the previous default, format = "pswrite", was removed in
      Ghostscript 9.10.
    * For consistency with [dpqr]norm(), [dp]lnorm(sdlog = 0) model a
      point mass at exp(mulog) rather than return NaN (for an error).
    * capabilities() now reports if ICU is compiled in for use for
      collation (it is only actually used if a suitable locale is set
      for collation, and never for a C locale).
    * (OS X only.) Package tcltk checks when loaded if it is linked
      against the CRAN X11-based Tcl/Tk and if so that the Tcl/Tk
      component and the X11 libraries are installed.  This allows more
      informative error messages to be given advising the installation
      of the missing component or of XQuartz.
      The X11() device and X11-based versions of the data editor and
      viewer (invoked by edit() and View() for data frames and matrices
      from command-line R) check that the X11 libraries are installed
      and if not advises installing XQuartz.
    * icuSetCollate() allows locale = "default", and locale = "none" to
      use OS services rather than ICU for collation.
      Environment variable R_ICU_LOCALE can be used to set the default
      ICU locale, in case the one derived from the OS locale is
      inappropriate (this is currently necessary on Windows).
    * New function icuGetCollate() to report on the ICU collation
      locale in use (if any).
    * utils::URLencode() was updated to use unreserved and reserved
      characters from RFC 3986, <URL:>, instead of RFC 1738.
    * unique(warnings()) and c(warnings()) are now supported.
    * The Bioconductor 'version' used by setRepositories() now defaults
      to 3.0. (It can be set at runtime _via_ environment variable
    * The configure script reports on the more important
      capabilities/options which will not be compiled in.
      More types of external BLAS are recognized by name in that
    * When building R as a shared library, the -L${R_HOME}/lib${R_ARCH}
      flag is placed earlier in the link commands used during
      installation and when packages are installed: this helps ensure
      that the current build has priority if an R shared library has
      already been installed by e.g. install-libR in a library
      mentioned in LDFLAGS (and not in 'your system's library
      directory' as documented). (Wish of PR#15790.)
    * LaTeX package upquote is no longer required for R's use of
    * (Windows only) If both 32 and 64 bit versions of R are installed,
      the bin/R.exe and bin/Rscript.exe executables now run 64 bit R.
      (To run 32 bit R, overwrite these files with copies of
    * Running R CMD check with _R_CHECK_DEPENDS_ONLY_ true now makes
      the VignetteBuilder packages available even if they are listed in
      Suggests, since they are needed to recognise and process
      non-Sweave vignettes.
    * R CMD check now reports empty importFrom declarations in a
      NAMESPACE file, as these are common errors (writing
      importFrom(Pkg) where import(Pkg) was intended).
    * R CMD check now by default checks code usage directly on the
      package namespace without loading and attaching the package and
      its suggests and enhances.  For good practice with packages in
      the Suggests field, see SS1.1.3.1 of 'Writing R Extensions'.  For
      use of lazy-data objects in the package's own code, see ?data.
    * dmultinom() did not handle non-finite probabilities correctly.
    * prettyNum(x, zero.print=*) now also works when x contains NAs.
    * A longstanding bug exhibited by nlminb() on Windows was traced to
      a compiler bug in gcc 4.6.3; a workaround has been put in place.
      (PR#15244 and PR#15914).
    * Rendering of \command in HTML versions of help pages has been
      improved: this is particularly evident on the help page for
    * as.hexmode(x) and as.octmode(x) now behave correctly for some
      numeric x, e.g., c(NA, 1) or c(1, pi).
    * drop1() failed if the scope argument had no variables to drop.
    * edit() (and hence fix()) failed if an object had a non-character
      attribute named "source" (an attribute that had been used in R
      prior to version 2.14.0).
    * callGeneric() could fail if the generic had ... as a formal
      argument. (PR#15937).
    * Forking in package parallel called C entry point exit in the
      child.  This was unsafe (_exit should have been called), and
      could flush stdin of the main R process (seen most often on
      As good practice, stdout is now flushed before forking a child.
    * R objects such as list(`a\b` = 1) now print correctly.
    * getAnywhere("C_pbinom") now returns correctly a single object
      (rather than unlisting it).
    * The confint() method for nls() fits failed it these has specified
      parameter limits despite using an algorithm other than "port".
    * Subclassing an S4 class failed if the class required arguments to
      the generator, through its initialize() method.
    * removeSource() did not properly handle expressions containing
      arguments that were supplied as missing, e.g.  x[i,]. (PR#15957)
    * as.environment(list()) now works, and as.list() of such an
      environment is now the same as list().
    * Several tcltk functions failed when run in unusual environments.
    * options(list()) now works (trivially). (PR#15979)
    * merge(<dendrogram>, ..) now works correctly for two `independent'
      dendrograms (PR#15648), and still compatibly via adjust = "auto"
      e.g. for two branches of an existing dendrogram.
    * The plot method for "hclust" objects gets an optional argument
      check; When that is true (the default) it checks more carefully
      for valid input.
    * (Windows only) If a user chose to install 64 bit R but not 32 bit
      R, the bin/R and bin/Rscript executables failed to run.
    * Various possible buffer overruns have been prevented, and missed
      memory protection added. (PR#15990)
    * Rscript no longer passes --args to R when there are no extra
      ("user") arguments.
    * objects like getClass("refClass")@prototype now print() and str()
      without error.
    * identical() now also looks at the S4 bit.
    * hist(x, breaks) is more robust in adding a small fuzz to few
      breaks when some are very large. (PR#15988)
    * sub() and gsub() did not handle regular expressions like "\s{2,}"
      properly if the text contained NA or non-ascii elements in a
      UTF-8 locale.  Part of this was due to a bug in the TRE library.
    * RShowDoc("NEWS") now displays the PDF version.
    * Matrices and arrays with last dimension zero did not print at all
      or incompletely.  (PR#16012)
    * plot.histogram() and hence hist() now respect the xaxs, yaxs and
      lab graphics parameters.  (PR#16021)
    * bw.SJ(x) and other bw.*() no longer segfault when x contains
      non-finite values. (PR#16024)
    * R CMD Rd2pdf unintentionally ignored its --os option.
    * The internal method of download.file() was not reporting file
      sizes and progress correctly on files larger than 2GB (inherited
      from libxml2).  This is corrected for 64-bit builds (32-bit
      platforms may not support such files, but where possible will be
      supported in future versions of R).
    * Work around a bug in OS X Yosemite where key environment
      variables may be duplicated causing issues in subprocesses. The
      duplicates are now removed on R startup (via Rprofile).
    * Adjust X11 auto-launch detection in DISPLAY on OS X to recognize
      latest XQuartz.



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